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Human Body Systems

Human Body Systems

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Human Body Systems

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  1. Human Body Systems Systems Homeostasis

  2. For each system… • Know the job of the whole system • Know the organs that make the system • Know the job of each organ

  3. Circulatory System • Job: Pump blood moving nutrients and oxygen through body, remove carbon dioxide and waste. • Parts: • Heart – Muscle that pumps blood • Arteries and veins – main paths from and to heart • Capillaries –where exchange of materials happens • Kidney & Liver – Filter/Clean the blood

  4. Nervous System • Job: Control all body functions by receiving and sending nerve impulses • Parts • Brain - Control center, Regulates everything • Spinal Cord – Main path from the brain branches to rest of the body • Neurons – Nerve cells, long shape to pass electrochemical messages

  5. Respiratory System • Job: Bring in Oxygen; Breath out CO2 • Parts • Nose: Clean/moisten/prepare air • Pharynx: back of your mouth/throat • Larynx: Make your voice • Trachea: windpipe, for air, not food • Bronchi: split to each lung • Alveoli: small sacks that make the lungs. Where the actual diffusion of O and CO2 happens.

  6. Digestive system • Job: Break down food • Parts: • Mouth: chew and start digesting (saliva) • Esophagus: connection to stomach • Stomach: Acids that liquefy and mix up food • Small intestine: absorbs nutrients into blood • Large intestine: absorbs water (leaving poop)

  7. Muscle&Skeletal Systems • Jobs: Movement and shape, protect organs • Parts • Muscles: connect to bones by tendons • Bones: give protection and make blood cells inside • Ligaments: connect bones at joints • Cartilage: smooth ends of bones

  8. Homeostasis • The act of keeping things in a balanced state that is needed for body to work properly • Example • Body temperature: shivering and sweating • Hydration: Kidneys removing water from blood • Sugar: balancing blood sugar in diabetes

  9. Hepatitis is a disease of the liver. Which of the following happens as a result of decreased liver function? A. Carbon dioxide builds up in the liver. B. Toxic compounds build up in the blood. C. The kidneys take over the functions of the liver. D. The stomach produces the enzymes needed for digestion.

  10. Hepatitis is a disease of the liver. Which of the following happens as a result of decreased liver function? B. Toxic compounds build up in the blood. Job of Liver : Clean the blood

  11. The diagram below shows one response pathway the human body uses to control blood pressure. Which body systems work together in this response pathway to control blood pressure? A. digestive and nervous B. nervous and circulatory C. respiratory and digestive D. circulatory and excretory

  12. The diagram below shows one response pathway the human body uses to control blood pressure. Which body systems work together in this response pathway to control blood pressure? B. nervous and circulatory Brain (Nervous) Blood/Heart (circulatory)

  13. In the human respiratory system, the contraction and relaxation of a muscle called the diaphragm helps move air through which of the following structures? A. artery, capillary, and vein B. larynx, pharynx, and trachea C. atrium, trachea, and ventricle D. esophagus, kidney, and pharynx

  14. In the human respiratory system, the contraction and relaxation of a muscle called the diaphragm helps move air through which of the following structures? B. larynx, pharynx, and trachea You may not know them in order, but the other answers all have parts that are not in the respiratory system!!!!

  15. In which part of the human digestive system do both physical breakdown and chemical breakdown of food first begin? A. esophagus B. mouth C. large intestine D. small intestine

  16. In which part of the human digestive system do both physical breakdown and chemical breakdown of food first begin? B. mouth You start eating/digesting with the mouth. You knew that right???

  17. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter in the human body. As a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine is directly responsible for which of the following? A. speeding up the rate of biochemical reactions in cells B. assisting in the transport of nutrients in the bloodstream C. carrying the signal for a nerve impulse from one neuron to the next D. facilitating diffusion of amino acids across the plasma membrane of cells

  18. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter in the human body. As a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine is directly responsible for which of the following? C. carrying the signal for a nerve impulse from one neuron to the next Neurons are nerve cells. The send electrochemical messages

  19. Which term describes the maintenance of a steady internal state in the body? A. gametogenesis B. homeostasis C. mitosis D. respiration

  20. Which term describes the maintenance of a steady internal state in the body? B. homeostasis Homeostasis is keeping balance in the body

  21. A biological process is represented in the diagram below. Which of the following concepts is best illustrated by the diagram? A. Crossing-over creates new genetic diversity in gametes. B. Mitosis increases the number of chromosomes in zygote cells. C. In asexual reproduction, the offspring produced are genetically identical to the parent. D. In sexual reproduction, the offspring receive the same number of chromosomes from each parent.

  22. A biological process is represented in the diagram below. Which of the following concepts is best illustrated by the diagram? D. In sexual reproduction, the offspring receive the same number of chromosomes from each parent. Reproduction (think genetics)!!

  23. Crohn’s disease causes inflammation of the digestive tract, particularly the small intestine. Inflammation of the small intestine would directly interfere with which of the following digestive functions? A. liquefying food B. reabsorbing water C. absorbing nutrients D. moving food to the stomach

  24. Crohn’s disease causes inflammation of the digestive tract, particularly the small intestine. Inflammation of the small intestine would directly interfere with which of the following digestive functions? C. absorbing nutrients Small intestine job : absorb nutrients

  25. An EEG is a medical instrument that measures and records the electrical activity of the brain. The brain’s electrical activity is directly caused by which of the following? A. production of ATP B. synthesis of hormones C. repair of damaged tissue D. transmission of nerve impulses

  26. An EEG is a medical instrument that measures and records the electrical activity of the brain. The brain’s electrical activity is directly caused by which of the following? D. transmission of nerve impulses Brain send messages through neurons or nerves

  27. Scientists are researching a way to regenerate cartilage. In a lab, cartilage-forming cells are grown on a synthetic carbon surface. If continued trials are successful, the synthetic surface can be applied to which of the following areas in the human body to treat cartilage damage or loss? A. muscle fibers B. major arteries C. the ends of bones D. the axons of nerve cells

  28. Scientists are researching a way to regenerate cartilage. In a lab, cartilage-forming cells are grown on a synthetic carbon surface. If continued trials are successful, the synthetic surface can be applied to which of the following areas in the human body to treat cartilage damage or loss? C. the ends of bones Cartilage covers ends of bones, makes them smooth

  29. Joints are most important for which of the following functions of the human skeletal system? A. protection B. movement C. storage of minerals D. blood cell formation

  30. Joints are most important for which of the following functions of the human skeletal system? B. movement Joints include knee, elbow etc. Anywhere two bones meet.

  31. Degenerative nerve diseases destroy nerve cells. These diseases can lead to paralysis by interfering with which of the following? A. transport of hormones that stimulate muscle cells B. production of ATP that is required by muscle cells C. transmission of electrochemical signals from the brain to muscle cells D. exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between neurons and muscle cells

  32. Degenerative nerve diseases destroy nerve cells. These diseases can lead to paralysis by interfering with which of the following? C. transmission of electrochemical signals from the brain to muscle cells

  33. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship of the kidneys and the liver to the circulatory system? A. The kidneys and the liver pump blood. B. The kidneys and the liver produce blood cells. C. The kidneys and the liver remove wastes from blood. D. The kidneys and the liver make blood-clotting proteins.

  34. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship of the kidneys and the liver to the circulatory system? C. The kidneys and the liver remove wastes from blood. Kidney and Liver Jobs : Clean blood

  35. The nose serves all the following functions except A. providing an airway. B. moistening inhaled air. C. filtering dust and particles from inhaled air. D. transferring oxygen from the air to the bloodstream.

  36. The nose serves all the following functions except D. transferring oxygen from the air to the bloodstream. This happens in the alveoli, all other answers were jobs of the nose.

  37. A person who is cold shivers to generate body heat. Which of the following lists the primary body systems that interact to maintain homeostasis in this situation? A. nervous, excretory, and respiratory B. excretory, digestive, and respiratory C. digestive, muscular, and circulatory D. muscular, circulatory, and nervous

  38. A person who is cold shivers to generate body heat. Which of the following lists the primary body systems that interact to maintain homeostasis in this situation? D. muscular, circulatory, and nervous Nerves send message to muscles to move, blood brings food to muscles for movement also absorbs spreads heat from muscle contraction

  39. Which of the following body systems provides protection for structures A and C? A. circulatory system B. muscular system C. nervous system D. skeletal system

  40. Which of the following body systems provides protection for structures A and C? D. skeletal system You can’t see the pictures A and C, but you should know bones (skull, ribs) protect you

  41. Structure D is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus has both nervous and endocrine functions. In which of the following ways does nervous system communication differ from endocrine system communication? A. The nervous system uses electrochemical signals for communication, whereas the endocrine system uses hormones. B. Nervous system communication occurs slowly, whereas endocrine system communication occurs quickly. C. The nervous system sends messages along myelinated axons to communicate, whereas the endocrine system sends messages along unmyelinated axons. D. Nervous system communication controls only voluntary functions, whereas endocrine system communication controls only involuntary functions.

  42. Structure D is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus has both nervous and endocrine functions. In which of the following ways does nervous system communication differ from endocrine system communication? A. The nervous system uses electrochemical signals for communication, whereas the endocrine system uses hormones.

  43. Which of the following statements applies to all forms of sexual reproduction? A. All offspring from a mating look exactly the same. B. Offspring receive genetic material from two gametes. C. Offspring completely develop inside the mother’s body before birth. D. All offspring are born with their organs and senses fully developed.

  44. Which of the following statements applies to all forms of sexual reproduction? B. Offspring receive genetic material from two gametes. Need 2 for sex, sperm and egg!

  45. Which of the following is a body system response that adjusts body temperature when it is higher than normal? A. Breathing rate begins to decrease. B. Blood vessels near the skin constrict. C. Sweat glands produce and secrete sweat. D. Hormones increase the metabolic rate of the liver.

  46. Which of the following is a body system response that adjusts body temperature when it is higher than normal? C. Sweat glands produce and secrete sweat. When you are hot, you sweat!!!

  47. Heartburn is pain that occurs when acidic gastric juice is forced out of the upper end of the stomach. In which of the following organs does a person experience heartburn? A. pancreas B. esophagus C. small intestine D. large intestine

  48. Heartburn is pain that occurs when acidic gastric juice is forced out of the upper end of the stomach. In which of the following organs does a person experience heartburn? B. esophagus Esophagus job : connect mouth to stomach. It is above the stomach

  49. Which of the following statements best explains why oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood? A. The diaphragm draws oxygen into the alveoli at a rapid speed. B. Alveoli cells contain hemoglobin to transfer gases to the blood. C. The concentration of oxygen is greater in the alveoli than in the blood. D. Red blood cells move one at a time through the capillaries surrounding the alveoli.

  50. Which of the following statements best explains why oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood? C. The concentration of oxygen is greater in the alveoli than in the blood. Things diffuse from high to low