Energy and Biochemistry Unit 4 cont.
Chemistry • Composition of matter and how it changes • As living things, we require 20 elements • Most of which are oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen • Biochemistry: study of chemical processes related to living things
A little chemistry • Atom: individual unit of an element that still has the element’s properties • Atoms of different elements are different from one another • Protons (+), neutrons, electrons (-) • Bonds: attractions between atoms; due to sharing or donating of electrons • Covalent: shared electrons • Ionic: transfer of electrons
A little chemistry • Molecules: more than one atom • Compounds: more than one type of atom • Examples: • Na • O2 • H2O
Macromolecules • Macromolecules: large molecules made of repeating subunits (AKA polymers) • Made of monomers (smaller molecules, repeating subunits) • There are different monomers depending on which atoms are arranged and how they are arranged
Digestion • We consume the macromolecule, but it is later broken down into these smaller monomers to be used in our body.
Carbohydrates • Elements: C, H, O in 1:2:1 ratio • Monomer: monosaccharides
Polymers • Disaccharides (2 mono’s) • Polysaccharides (3/more mono’s)
Carbohydrates Bozeman - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zm_DyD6FJ0 Sulfuric acid and sugar - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOedJgqTT9E • Examples: glucose, fructose, galactose, maltose, starch • Functions: energy storage, structural support in plants • Foods: sugars, syrups, pasta, candy cane, candy corn, fruits, vegetables, bread
Lipids (fats) • Elements: C, H, O, sometimes P • Monomer: fatty acids, glycerol
Lipids cont. • Examples: triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids (cholesterol, hormones) • Functions: energy storage (2x as much as carbs), insulation, shock absorber, cell membranes • Foods: oils, butter, cheese, meat
Fats • Unsaturated: has double bonds • Liquid at room temperature • Saturated: no double bonds, completely saturated with Hydrogen • Solid at room temperature • Which of these is healthier?
Proteins • Elements: C, H, O and N • Monomer: amino acids (20 types) • Functions: energy, enzymes, cell transport, muscular structure, receptors, antibodies • Foods: meat, fish, grains, nuts
Dehydration Synthesis • Dehydration synthesis: building a bigger molecule; water is removed
Organic Molecules • Contain chains or rings of carbon • Everything we’ve discussed • Carbs • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA)
Amino acids • Structure: • central carbon • amino group • carboxyl group (acid) • R group (side chain) • variable group • unique chemical • properties of the amino acid
Proteins • Amino acids are joined by a peptide bond
Protein Folding • The structure/folding of a protein determines its function.
Primary Protein Structure • Amino acid linear sequence • “Beads on a string”
Secondary Protein Structure • First stage of folding • Alpha Helix • Beta pleated sheet
Tertiary Protein Structure • More folding • Protein folds in on itself
Quaternary Protein Structure • 2 or more units folded together
Protein folding • Randomly put 15 pins on the tuber (primary -1) • Arrange your protein chain into an alpha helix or beta sheet • (secondary -2) • Touch red pins with the blue pins and white pins with the yellow pins • (tertiary - 3) • tertiary structures bind with one another (quaternary- 4)