Biochemistry A Way of LIFE
Hierarchy of matter • Atoms • Elements • HONC PS make up 90% of all living organisms • Monomers make up polymers • Monosaccharides • Fatty acids • Amino Acids • Nucleotides • Biological Compounds (polymers) • Carbohydrates (CH20) • Lipids (CHO) 2x as many H as C, fewer O • Proteins (CHONS) • Nucleic Acids (CHONP)
Monomer Monomer Monomer Monomer Macromolecular Structure • Monomer • Single unit of a macromolecule • Can be linked together to form polymers
Carbohydrates • AKA: sugars, saccharides • <the movie was funny, but it had a saccharine ending in which everyone lives happily ever after> development of saccharin -- an artificial sweetener known today to many seasoned dieters as Sweet-n-Low. • Why are they important?
Monomers (C6H12O6) • Glucose - Photosynthesis • Fructose - Fruit • Galactose – Milk • Same chemical formula • Different shape = isomer • Polymer : Starch • Plant Energy • Polymer: Cellulose • Polymer: Glycogen • Animal energy
C6H12O6 • +C6H12O6 When H2O is created because two monomers are united, this is called a condensation reaction. The opposite, when water is added to break a polymer apart, it is called hydrolysis. C12H22 O11
Types of Lipids • Phospholipids • Triglycerides • Waxes • Steroids • Type of Steroids: Cholesterol • Hormones • Androgen • Corticosteroids • HGH • BGH
1) Lipids • Lots of C, twice as much H, very little O • Long hydrocarbon chains Fatty acid (monomer) • Triglyceride (Fats) • Saturated or unsaturated • Oil (liquid) - E storage • Fat (solid) - E storage, insulation, padding • Nonpolar • Hydrophobic • Polar • Hydrophilic
PHOSPHOLIPID TRIGLYCERIDE Phosphate Glycerol Glycerol
H20 outside of cell Impermeable to H20, maintains cell integrity. H20 inside of cell
Radical Group R O H N C C H O H H Proteins • C, H, O, N and sometimes S • Peptide = Amino Acid = Protein Monomer • Over twenty varieties (They differ only in the “radical” group)
Proteins • Enzymes are a type of protein • Lower the activation energy for chemical reactions • Are reusable • Phenylketonuria • Neurological disease • Lack of enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxlase Phenylalanine • Phenylalanine hydroxlase
Proteins • Proteins are polymers comprised of amino acids • Structural examples • Muscle fibers, hair, cytoskeleton • Cell membrane proteins
Nucleic Acids • C, H, O, N, and P • Nucleotide (nucleic acid monomer) • Monosaccharide • Ribose or Deoxyribose • Nitrogenous Base • Phosphate Group
Nucleic Acids • Nucleic Acid Polymers • RNA • Protein synthesis • DNA • Primary genetic info
1. List the 6 elements common to all organisms • 2. Name four organic compounds • 3. Describe the amount of elements found in a carbohydrate monomer. • 4. Name 3 carbohydrate monomers • 5. Name 3 carbohydrate polymers • 6. Name the polymer for each monomer • A. nucleotide C. Fatty acid • B. monosaccharide D. Amino acid • 7. Draw a rough outline of what a nucleic acid monomer and a carbohydrate monomer would look like. • 8. What elements are in a nucleic acid monomer?