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Bio 250: Human Anatomy

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Bio 250: Human Anatomy

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  1. Bio 250: Human Anatomy Spring 2005 Respiratory System

  2. Respiratory System • Provide Body w/ Oxygen • Remove Carbon Dioxide Respiration • Pulmonary Ventilation • External Respiration • Transport of Respiratory Gases • Internal Respiration

  3. Organs of Respiratory System • Nose • Nasal Cavity • Pharynx • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchi • Lungs • Diaphragm

  4. Respiratory System Zones Respiratory Zone • Actual Site of gas exchange • Bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli Conducting Zone • No gas exchange • Warms, humidifies, cleanses air

  5. Nose Functions: • Airway for respiration • Moistens and warms air • Filter and cleanses air • Resonating chamber for speech • Olfactory (smell) receptors • External Nose includes the bridge, apex, & nares (nostrils).

  6. Nasal Cavity • Lies deep and posterior to external nose • Internal Nares • Hard / Soft Palate • Olfactory / Respiratory Mucosa • Superior, Middle, Inferior Conchae

  7. Paranasal Sinuses • Help to lighten the skull • Warm and moisten air • Help to produce mucus

  8. Pharynx • Connects nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx • Extends from base of skull to C6 • Three distinct regions: • Nasopharynx • Oropharynx • Laryngopharynx

  9. Nasopharynx • Lies above point where food enters • Serves only as an air passageway • Soft palate closes off during swallowing • Uvula • Contains ciliated epithelium • Helps to propel mucus

  10. Oropharynx • Lies posterior to the oral cavity • Serves as food and air passageway • Contains stratified squamous epithelium • Protection from friction, chemical trauma

  11. Laryngopharynx • Lies inferior to Oropharynx • Serves as food and air passageway • Lined with stratified squamous epithelium • Protection from friction, chemical trauma

  12. Larynx • Also known as the Voice Box Functions: • Provide open airway. • Directs air and food to proper channels. • Voice production.

  13. Larynx (Cont.) Parts of the Larynx: • Thyroid Cartilage • (Laryngeal Prominence – Adam’s Apple) • Cricoid Cartilage • Hyoid Bone • Epiglottis • True Vocal Folds • False Vocal Folds

  14. Voice Production • Air flowing through the Glottis • Pitch varies with tension of vocal folds • Loudness varies with force of airstream • Males typically have larger larynx • Reason men have deeper voices • Laryngitis: inflammation of vocal folds

  15. Trachea • Also known as the windpipe • Descends inferiorly from the larynx • Very flexible and mobile structure • Divide into 2 primary Bronchi 3 Layers of Tracheal Wall: • Mucosa: internal layer • Submucosa: middle layer • Adventitia: external layer

  16. The Bronchial Tree Conducting Zone: • Primary (Principal) Bronchi • Secondary (Lobar) Bronchi • Tertiary (Segmental) Bronchi • Conducting Bronchioles / Terminal Bronchioles

  17. The Bronchial Tree (Cont.) Respiratory Zone: • Respiratory Bronchioles • Alveolar Ducts • Alveoli

  18. Anatomy of Lungs • Apex – superior portion • Base – inferior portion • Right Lung – 3 lobes • Upper, middle, lower lobes • Horizontal, oblique fissures • Left Lung – 2 lobes • Upper, lower lobes • Oblique fissure • Cardiac Notch

  19. Lung Blood Supply • Pulmonary Arteries • Receives de-oxygenated blood from heart • Pulmonary Veins • Delivers oxygenated blood back to heart • Bronchial Arteries • Supplies lung tissue with blood

  20. Pleurae • Double-layered tissue • Decreases friction between lungs, body • Parietal Pleura • Covers thoracic wall, diaphragm • Visceral (Pulmonary) Pleura • Covers external lung surface • Pleural Fluid, Pleural Cavity • Atelectasis, Pneumothorax, Hemothorax

  21. Pulmonary Ventilation Inspiration • Action of the diaphragm • Action of the intercostal muscles • Accessory muscles Expiration Usually a passive process (no muscles)

  22. Pulmonary Ventilation (Cont.) • Eupnea: normal breathing (12-20/min) • Bradypnea: <12 breaths/min • Tachypnea: >20 breaths/min • Dyspnea: SOB, labored breathing • Apnea: no breathing • Sleep Apnea • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea • Waking up out of breath

  23. Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS) • Surfactant • Natural substance produced in lungs • Decreases friction within alveoli • Keeps the alveoli from collapsing • IRDS • Premature infants at risk (1-2 months) • Treated with positive pressure, natural/synthetic surfactant

  24. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Common Features: • Almost all have history of smoking • Dyspnea – labored breathing • Coughing, frequent pulmonary infections • Most develop respiratory failure

  25. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Obstructive Emphysema • Permanent enlargement of alveoli • Eventual deterioration of alveolar walls • Lungs become less elastic • Ability to return to resting state • Difficulty with expiration • Barrel Chest

  26. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic Bronchitis: • Irritants lead to excessive mucus production • Obstruct the airways, impair ventilation • Pulmonary infections very common

  27. Asthma Common Characteristics: • Coughing • Wheezing • Dyspnea • Chest Tightness Combination of Bronchospasm, Inflammatory Processes

  28. Tuberculosis (TB) • Caused by airborne bacteria • Mycobacterium tuberculosis • Common Symptoms • Fever, night sweats, weight loss, racking cough, spitting blood

  29. Lung Cancer • Main cause is cigarette smoking • Most prevalent type of malignancy Most Common Types: • Squamous Cell Carcinoma • Epithelium of bronchi • Adenocarcinoma • Peripheral lung areas • Small Cell Carcinoma • Lymphocytes from primary bronchi