School: Types, Functions and Problems Dr.Sukhwinder Singh Cheema Assistant Professor Malwa Central College of Education for Women, Civil Lines, Ludhiana
Meaning of School • Etymological Meaning: • The word school is derived from Greek word “Skhole” which mean “Leisure” • Because Education in Greece was for rich class where style of teaching was to harness their leisure time to cultivate various aspects of culture.
Types of school as per level of education Type of School as per Level of Education • National • International • Pre-Primary • (3-6 Yrs) • Primary • (6-14 Yrs) • Secondary • (15-16 Yrs) • Special School • (17-19 Yrs) • Senior Secondary • (17-19 Yrs) • Pace setting • PWD • General • National open schools • Boarding • Adult • Multipurpose • Technical/Poly Tech • Rural School • Autonomous schools • Vocational Professional(Sports etc) • Military School ITI’s
Types of Schools • Public/government schools: Most schools in India are funded and run by the government. However, the public education system faces serious challenges including a lack of adequate infrastructure, insufficient funding, a shortage of staff and scarce facilities • Private schools: Since many government schools do not provide adequate education, Indian parents aspire to send their children to a private school. Some expats choose to send their children to private Indian schools • International schools: There are international schools in all major cities. They are attended by Foreigner and Indian children. • National open schools: Provide education up to the higher secondary level for children whose schooling has been interrupted and have been unable to complete formal education • Special-needs schools: Provide non-formal education and vocational training to children with disabilities
International School IGCSE-International General Certificate of Secondary Education(UK) GCSE- General Certificate of Secondary Education(UK) GCE-General Certificate of Education(UKand Commonwealth countries CIE/IB-Cambridge International Exams/IB: International Baccalaureate or Cambridge International Examinations
National and State Boards The NCERT – Apex Body for curriculum: • As far as school education and its functions are concerned, the National Council of Educational Research and Training takes care of all curriculum related matters. Various schools in the country seek technical assistance from this body. • CBSE: The Central Board of Secondary Education which falls under the purview of the Central Government is a board of education for both public and private schools in India. • The Council of Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE): CISCE conducts three examinations, namely, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE - Class/Grade 10); The Indian School Certificate (ISC - Class/Grade 12) and the Certificate in Vocational Education (CVE - Class/Grade 12). ICSE: The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations Board is a non-governmental and private education board for education in India. • NIOS: Established by the Government of India and the Ministry for Human Resource Development in 1989, the National Institute of Open Schooling Board aims at providing quality education in rural areas in a inexpensive manner. • Islamic Madrasah Schools: These schools may be either controlled by the state government, run autonomously or may be affiliated with the DarulUloomDeoband that is in the Sahranpur District of Uttar Pradesh.
National and State Boards • The SCERT – Apex Body for curriculum at State Levels: • As far as school education and its functions are concerned, the State Council of Educational Research and Training takes care of all curriculum related matters. Various schools in the State seek technical assistance from this body. • State Government Boards: Since 80% of the schools in India are managed by the government, this is the board under which the most children in India get enrolled. The Board of Secondary Education across major states has achieved its objectives of developing various systems.
Types of Pre-Primary Schools • Centre Govt. • Grant –in -aid • Private • State Govt.
Types of Centre/State Govt./Grant in Aids Pre Primary SchoolsIndian Child Welfare Council • Balwadies • Centre Govt. • ShishuKendras • Working Mother • Anganwadies • Adult /child centre • Run by State Government BalMandir
Types of Private Pre- Primary schools • Kindergarten • Frobel’s Play way Method( Germen) • 2.5 to 6Year Nursery/crecheSchool For the child (1 to 3 yrs) of Working Mother NGO NutanBalShiksha Sang School Montessori and Frobel’s Mixture • Montessori schools • Maria Montessori • Sensory Appratus Kit • 3 to 6 year
Frobel’s Playway schools • Play group (pre-nursery): At play schools, children are exposed to a lot of basic learning activities that help them to get independent faster and develop their self-help qualities like eating food themselves, dressing up, and maintaining cleanliness. The age limit for admission into pre-nursery is 2 to 3 years
Nursery Schools • Nursery level activities help children unfold their talents, thus enabling them to sharpen their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission in nursery is 3 to 4 years. • LKG: It is also called the Junior Kindergarten (Jr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in LKG is 4 to 5 years. • UKG: It is also called the Senior Kindergarten (Sr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in UKG is 5 to 6 years. • LKG and UKG stages prepare and help children emotionally, mentally, socially and physically to grasp knowledge easily in the later stages of school and college life.  A systematic process of preschool education is followed in India to impart knowledge in the best possible way for better understanding of the young children. By following an easy and interesting curriculum, teachers strive hard to make the entire learning process enjoyable for the children
NutanBalShiksha Sang School(Montessori and Frobel’s Mixture) • These Schools use mixture of Montessori and Froble’s method i.e. Playway and apparatus kits for teaching students
Types of Centre/State Govt./Grant in Aids Primary Schools • State Govt. Schools • Grant-in-Aid ZilaPrishad School Local Govt( Panchayat, MC ) Minority schools NavodyaVidyalayas
Types of Private Primary schools • Public Schools Boarding Schools Convent Schools • Day Boarding School Public Private Participation School • Airtel Satya Bharti Schools
Types of Centre Secondary Schools • KendariyaVidyalayas Military School • Navodya Vidyalayas • Multipurpose School Minority schools
Military School 4 types • Air Force Schools: • Which are imparting education to Ward of air force personnels. These schools follow CBSE Pattren. • Army/ MilltarySchools:Which are imparting education to Ward of Army or other Military force personnels. These schools follow CBSE Pattren. • Sainik: Which are imparting education to Ward of Airforce, Army and other Military force personnels. These schools follow CBSE Pattren. • Police Schools: Which are imparting education to Ward of Police personnels. These schools follow CBSE Pattren.
Pace Setting/ JawaharNavodyaVidyalayas • The NavodayaVidyalayas have been envisaged as pace - setting institutions, centres of educational excellence, providing opportunities for development, not only to JNV students, but also to the children of neighbouring rural area schools through sharing of facilities. Leadership qualities and other educational concerns that are linked to community and national development are also inculcated through pace - setting activities. Interaction of staff and students of JNV with their counterparts in neighbouring schools, participation in joint community efforts, adaptation of village for awareness programs are some of the pace – setting activities under taken by NavodayaVidyalayas.
Multi-purpose school • Multi-purpose schools as defined by the Mudaliar Commission are those schools which cater for different tastes, aptitude and objectives of the students by providing study in various subjects. This helps in the natural and all-round development of the students’ personality. They will understand the dignity of labour. They will have opportunity to widen their knowledge of crafts learnt in primary or basic classes. Some defects of secondary schools will find remedy in the multipurpose schools.
Minority Schools( Central and State)/Philanthropy • SGPC Schools: These schoolsmaybe either controlled by the state government, run autonomously ShiromaniGuruduwaraPrabhandak Committee/ DGPC • Islamic Madrasah Schools: These schools may be either controlled by the state government, run autonomously or may be affiliated with the DarulUloomDeoband that is in the Sahranpur District of Uttar Pradesh. • Arya Schools: • DAV School: • Anglo Sanskrit Schools: • Jain Schools: • Christian Schools:These schools may be either controlled by the state government, run autonomously Christian Societies or NGO’s • Buddhist schools:
Autonomous schools • There are schools like Woodstock School, • The Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education Puducherry, Auroville, PathaBhavan and • AnandaMargaGurukula • Which are autonomus in status and providing specific type of Education • Religious, Ayurveda, Yoga etc.
Open School "Open School"to cater to the needs of a heterogeneous group of learners up to pre-degree level. It was started as a project with in-built flexibilities by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in 1979. In 1986, the National Policy on Education suggested strengthening of Open School System for extending open learning facilities in a phased manner at secondary level all over the country as an independent system with its own curriculum and examination leading to certification. • Consequently, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India set up the National Open School (NOS) in November 1989. The pilot project of CBSE on Open School was amalgamated with NOS. • The National Open School (NOS) was vested with the authority to register, examine and certify students registered with it up to pre-degree level courses.
Open School • In July 2002, the Ministry of Human Resource Development amended the nomenclature of the organisation from the National Open School (NOS) to the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) with a mission to provide relevant continuing education at school stage, up to pre-degree level through • Open Learning system to prioritized client groups as an alternative to formal system, in pursuance of the normative national policy documents and in response to the need assessments of the people, and through it to make its share of contribution: • To universalisation of education, • To greater equity and justice in society, and • To the evolution of a learning society.
Types of State Govt./Grant in Aids Secondary Schools • State Govt. Schools • Grant-in-Aid ZilaPrishad School Local Govt( Panchayat, MC ) Multipurpose schools Minority schools • General Schools • Coeducational Schools • Model Schools • Girls Schools • Adarsh Schools • Boys Schools • Meritorious Schools
AdarshSchool • The Punjab government would set up 108 Adarsh Schools under public private partnership (PPP) mode to impart free and quality education to the brilliant and economically poor rural students in all the districts. It has already received two dozen proposals from different 11 private partners for the allotment of Adarsh School sites.
Model Schools • Punjab has approved to construction of 21 model schools in educationally backward blocks. These model schools were set up on the pattern of the KendriyaVidyalayas in 21 educationally backward blocks of the state,".
Meritorious schools • Punjab Govt has opened six Meritorious schools at Amritsar, Bhatinda, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala & Mohali under the "society for Promotion of Quality Education for Poor & Meritorious Student of Punjab" for students from Govt schools who have scored more than 80% marks in Matric. • The schools are residential and affiliated to PSEB and are for 10+1 & L0+2 classes only with the aim of placing deserving students into professional colleges at the all India level. • Final exam of class 10+1 have been completed and students will be promoted to 10+2. In the next academic session students for another 10+1 class will be enrolled thus completing the school strength. • Present strength in the schools is 2091 students out of which more than 70% are girl students' The schools impart teaching in the Non-Medical, Medical & Commerce streams only.
The students are provided free education, lodging/boarding, books , stationary & uniforms. The school routine is scheduled to ensure overall development with emphasis on academics. State of art infrastructure is in place and the concept shall be proliferated by the Govt. in other districts of Punjab, if found successful.
Post conduct of Final exams, extra teaching by contracting professional coaching houses has commenced in all districts‘. ltis worthwhile to mentioned here that the result of 10+1 in these schools has been very encouraging.
Types of Private Secondary schools • Public Schools Boarding Schools Convent Schools • Day Boarding School • Affiliated School • Associated School • Non Affiliated School
Poly Technical Schools Types of Centre/State Senior Secondary Schools • Govt. Schools* next slide • ITI’s Schools • KendariVidyalayas • Technical Schools Minority schools Military School • Vocational Schools Sainik School • Multipurpose School Adult School Rural School Special School
Types of State Govt./Grant in Aids Senior Secondary Schools • State Govt. Schools • Grant-in-Aid ZilaPrishad School Local Govt( Panchayat, MC ) Multipurpose schools Minority schools • General Schools • Coeducational Schools • Model Schools • Girls Schools • Adarsh Schools • Boys Schools • Meritorious Schools
Types of Private Senior Secondary schools • Public Schools Boarding Schools Convent Schools • Day Boarding School • Affiliated School • Associated School • Non Affiliated School
Functions of School • Conservation of Social Life: School play important role in maintaining continuity by conserving customs, values, culture and traditions, handing over to these to next generations. • Perpetuating of Social Life: • By handing over customs, values, culture and traditions, to these to next generations school play important role in perpetuating social life. School also ensure to provide minimum general culture to every student, which is indispensable for a successful living in present days complex life.
Functions of School • Promotion of Culture and Civilisation: • School trains children to modify and enrich their heritage with their efforts to establish better world. D.J.O Connonhas said, ‘if each generation, has to learn for itself what has been learned by its predecessors, no sort of intellectual or social development would be possible and the present state of society would be a little different from the society of the old stone age’ So school perform the important functions Constantly regorganising and reconstructing human experiences for the promotion of culture and civilization.
Functions of School • All-round development of the individual: School has major responsibility to develop all round personality of the child through curricular and co-curricular activities through craft, games, social service programme by catering childs such instincts and impulses. This will help to develop requiste habits, skills and attitudes. Promotion of social Efficiency: School is one of the foundation to develop human resource by developing childs skills and making them socially useful and efficient. Promotion of Democratic citizenship: School is one of the foundation to develop democratic citizen by inculcating democratic values among new generations.
Functions of School • Preserve Democracy: • School act as an important agent to preserve democracy by training future generation in democratic method through curricula and co-curricular activities. It also develop among youth balance attitude for rights and duties which is most important for stability of democracy. • Develop Leadership: • School act as an important agent to training future generation in leadership for various walks of life. • Post School Adjustments: According to Brown, “ School has a direct responsibility to preparing the child for post school adjustments by enhancing his capacities and capabilities’
Functions of School • For Higher values of Life: • Being basic unit of the society school has responsibility to impart Moral, Religious and ultimate values among future generations. It also develop the ability and sense of true appreciation of truth, goodness and beauty.
Problems of Schools • Lack of adequate staff: • The Problem of Equipment: • The Problem of Finance: • The problem of Infrastructure: • The Problem of Deficit of Reading Material: • Lack of Labs and Libraries: • Lacks of Research and Innovation in school education: • Defaulty Examination system: • Lack of Supervision and Inspection: • Inequity in Enrolment:
Problems of Schools • Low quality books: • Old Methods of teaching: • Isolation of Schools from Social Life: • Lack of Correlation of content with life: • High PTR ratio: • High School Dropout. • Low Gross enrolment Rate: • Low Transition Rate: • High Institutional Cost: • High Per capita Cost: