Wood Turning • Wood turnings are produced on a wood lathe. • Various types of turning tools supported on a tool rest are used to produce different shapes. • Chair legs, bowls, lamp bases, and stair balusters are examples of items shaped on the wood lathe.
Wood Lathe Headstock Tailstock • Size of a wood lathe is determined by its Swing – the largest diameter stock that can be turned. • Bed length is the maximum distance between the headstock & tailstock centers. • A standard size lathe is one with a 12 inch swing & 48 inch bed.
LATHE ACCESSORIES 4 Jaw Chuck Independent Jaws For irregular shaped Work-pieces 3 Jaw Chuck For fast clamping of stock. Self centering of stock. Cup Center Mounted in tailstock to hold Work between centers. Used for longer stock lengths.
Lathe Accessories Spur Drives & Chisel Points Mounted on Headstock spindle to drive work piece (rotate work). Center point of stock must be located First before mounting spur drives.
Lathe Accessories Face Plates Used to drive work by screwing work to face plate then mounting on spindle. Good for turning short work like bowls. Straight Tool Rest Used to rest lathe cutting tools on While turning work. Good for long work-pieces.
Lathe Accessories 90 Degree Angle Tool Rest For shallow Bowls Deep Curved Tool Rest For deeper Interior work Other tool rest styles
Turning Tools • There are six basic shapes of turning tools used on the lathe. • They are available in various widths, thickness and lengths. • Turning tools cut best when hollow-ground. PARTING GOUGE SKEW ROUND NOSE SPEAR FLAT NOSE
GOUGE • Used to cut rough stock to a cylindrical shape. • For rapid material removal. • Does not produce a smooth surface.
SKEW • Used to make finishing or smoothing cuts & to square shoulders. • Tool is placed flat on the tool rest with the bevel down. • A skew scrapes rather than cuts the wood.
Round Nose, Spear Point& Flat Nose • Used when the tool shape fits the contour of the work. • These also make scraping cuts and are held flat against the tool rest when used. ROUND FLAT SPEAR
PARTING TOOL • This tool is used to cut off or part wood. • It can also be used to face off the end of wood. • Wood that is being parted must be held in a chuck or face plate. • Never attempt to part a piece of wood mounted between centers.
Wood Selection • Must be suitable for its intended use. • Woods commonly used for turning include, birch, mahogany, hard maple, oak & walnut. • Structural work-pieces should be kiln dried, have straight grain with few defects. • Decorative pieces such as bowls can use woods with defects & wild grain patterns to enhance their appearance.
Gluing Stock For Turning • Gluing is sometimes needed to achieve desired stock size. • Also used to stabilize a product. (less shrinkage or cracking) • Only flat surfaced stock should be glued together so separation does not occur during the cut. • Different types of wood can be glued together to give a decorative appearance. • Scrap stock can be glued to good stock for faceplate turnings – keeps screws from damaging finished product.
Gluing Continued • A piece of notebook paper can be glued between faceplate turnings to help separate them later. • Special adhesives called cyanoacrylates are used by professional craftsmen to glue defects like loose knots in wood turnings. (very hazardous dries almost instantly)
Procedures for Turning • For spindle turning: • Stock should be about 1” longer than completed length. • Diagonal lines should be made on each end of the work-piece to locate centers. • Diagonal cuts apprx. 1/8” deep should be cut on one end for spur drive. • Stock greater than 2” thick should have corners cut off on table saw or jointer reducing amount of stock to be roughed turned. • Tool rest should be set parallel to and 1/8” away from work-piece and on center.
For Headstock Turning: • Select stock size needed for work-piece. • Select smaller piece of scrap to glue to work-piece and attach to faceplate. • Cut both pieces to a circular shape. • Screw assembly to face plate. • Thread on face plate to spindle nose of lathe. • Adjust tool rest to center and 1/8” away from work-piece. • Turn work by hand to check for clearance. • Turn work-piece.