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  1. CHAPTER 26 The Nation Divides: The Vietnam War and Social Conflict 1964-1971 CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ

  2. “I have a dream…” Martin Luther King, Jr., 1963

  3. TIMELINE 1962 Students for a Democratic Society write the Port Huron Statement 1964 Johnson reelected Civil Rights Act Wilderness Act “Freedom Summer” Cassius Clay becomes Muhammad Ali 1965 Selman, Alabama march Griswold v. Connecticut U.S. combat troops in Vietnam 1966 Clean Waters Act Miranda v. Arizona The first black mayor elected in Cleveland 1967 Riots in black urban areas of Los Angeles, Detroit, Newark

  4. TIMELINE 1968 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act The Tet Offensive The Pueblo seized by North Korea Hair on Broadway American Indian Movement Erlich’s The Population Bomb President Johnson announces plans not to run for reelection Nixon wins Presidency 1969 Gays at Stonewall Bar fight police raid 1970 April 22, the first “Earth Day” Environmental Protection Agency established U.S. invades Cambodia, increased protests 1971 All in the Family premieres Ellsberg’s Pentagon Papers

  5. THE NATION DIVIDES Overview • Lyndon Johnson and the Apex of Liberalism • Into War in Vietnam • The Movement • The Conservative Response

  6. LYNDON JOHNSON AND THE APEX OF LIBERALISM • The New President • The Great Society: Fighting Poverty and Discrimination • The Great Society: Improving the Quality of Life • The Liberal Warren Court

  7. The New President • From Texas poverty, to powerful Senator, to Vice President, Johnson assumed presidency at Kennedy’s death • Retained Kennedy cabinet and advisers • Won reelection in 1964 over conservative Goldwater • A liberal president with a large mandate and a liberal Congress

  8. The Great Society: Fighting Poverty • Johnson’s “War on Poverty” • Aid to Families with Dependent Children • Raise in Social Security payments • Head Start • Elementary and Secondary Education Act • The Job Corps • Volunteers in Service to America

  9. Percentage of Population Living Below the Poverty Line, 1969 (by state)

  10. The Great Society: Fighting Discrimination • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Selma, Alabama • Voting Rights Act • Mississippi’s black voters increases from 7% to 60% in 2 years

  11. The Great Society: Improving the Quality of Life • Medicare: medical needs for Americans over 65 • Medicaid: health care for the indigent • Surgeon General’s warning on cigarettes • Nadar and the Corvair • The Environment • Clean Air Act and the Clean Waters Act • Wild and Scenic Rivers Act and the Wilderness Act

  12. The Liberal Warren Court • Gideon v. Wainwright: right to legal counsel • Escabedo v. Illionis: right to counsel during interrogation • Miranda v. Arizona: required police to read the arrested their rights • Griswold v. Connecticut: contraception devices private choice • Loving v. Virginia: overturns restrictions on interracial marriage

  13. INTO WAR IN VIETNAM • The Vietnamese Revolution and the United States • Johnson’s War • Americans in Southeast Asia • 1968: The Turning Point

  14. The Vietnamese Revolution and the United States • September 2, 1945: Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent of French colonialism. • American and Britain supported France in its war with the Vietminh. • Geneva Accords divided Vietnam temporarily and elections to be held within 2 years to reunify the country • After the French pulled out, U.S. in effort to stave off communism in the south, created new government headed by Diem. • The National Liberation Front (U.S. labeled Vietcong) • Diem assassinated

  15. Johnson’s War • Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • March 8, 1965: American troops enter Vietnam • A guerrilla style war and bombing

  16. The American War in Vietnam

  17. Americans in Southeast Asia • U.S. optimism and miscalculations • U.S. troops typically poor, and minorities with less education than those with those able to obtain deferments • NLF committed and tenacious fighters • Although the supporting U.S. troops had superior technology, ambushes and small skirmishes frustrated the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces • March 16, 1968: My Lai

  18. U.S. Troop and Casualty Levels in Vietnam

  19. 1968: The Turning Point • January 30, 1968: The Tet Offensive • North Korea seizes U.S. intelligence ship, Pueblo • British financial collapse and withdrawal from the Suez Canal • March 1968: dollars traded for gold • March 31, 1968: Johnson end to U.S. escalation of war and negotiations in Paris

  20. THE MOVEMENT • From Civil Rights to Black Power • The New Left and the Struggle Against the War • Cultural Rebellion and the Counterculture • Women’s Liberation • The Many Fronts of Liberation

  21. From Civil Rights to Black Power • White organizers, Schwerner and Goodman, along with black co-worker, Chaney were murdered by KKK • 1964’s “Freedom Summer” • Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam • The Black Panthers and the summer riots • “Black is Beautiful”, black pride • Blacks in the political arena

  22. The New Left and the Struggle Against the War • Students for a Democratic Society and the Port Huron Statement • Free Speech Movement at Berkeley • The Fulbright hearings on the war • Draft resistance • Violent reactions • Black militants, white radicals, Weather Underground (The Weathermen)

  23. Cultural Rebellion and the Counterculture • An alternative society disavowing materialism, competition, conformity. • Hippies, “mind-expanding” drugs, the search for new spirituality • The sexual revolution • The Pill, Roe v. Wade

  24. Women’s Liberation • 1966: National Organization for Women founded • 1968: Feminists protested at the Miss America contest • “. . .something more than my husband and my children and my house” Betty Frieden

  25. The Many Fronts of Liberation • Chicanos • Cesar Chávez and the farm worker’s union • Puerto Ricans • The Young Lords • Native Americans • American Indian Movement • Alcatraz, Wounded Knee • Gays and Lesbians • Stonewall Bar; Gay Liberation Front

  26. THE CONSERVATIVE RESPONSE • Backlashes • The Turmoil of 1968 at Home • The Nixon Administration • Escalating and Deescalating in Vietnam

  27. Backlashes • Reactions to minorities militancy, challenges to traditional gender roles, fear of illicit drugs and their effects, resentment of affluent student protestors, and minority benefits of the Great Society • Reflected in politics: Nixon, Reagan, George Wallace and on TV with Archie Bunker

  28. The Turmoil of 1968 at Home • April 4, 1968: Johnson announced his plans not to seek reelection. • Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated • Robert Kennedy assassinated • Black neighborhoods break out in riot • Violence at the Democratic Convention in Chicago

  29. The Nixon Administration • Liberal policies on the environment: • DDT banned • The Environmental Protection Agency • Amendments to the Clean Air and Water Acts • The Endangered Species Act • Anti-war protests plagued the administration • Nixon’s “Enemies List” • The Pentagon Papers and the Plumbers

  30. Escalating and Deescalating in Vietnam • Nixon and national security advisor Kissinger focused on disengagement in Vietnam in order to deal with the Soviet Union and China • Gradual withdrawal from Vietnam accompanied by secret bombings and invasion of Cambodia and Laos. • Anti-war protests intensifed • Kent State: April 30, 1970 • U.S. Troops in Vietnam lose morale • Peace Accords signed in Paris in 1973