Chapter 18, Section 4 and 5 The War in the Pacific The Social Impact of the War
The Japanese Advance 1941 - 42 • December 7 – Pearl Harbor. • December 8 – Wake Island • December 10 – Guam • December 7 – March 1942 – Philippines. • Hitting any US target
Japanese Advance 1942 • Japan hoped the US would withdraw and leave the easy access to the natural resources of southeast Asia.
Japanese Advance • March, 1942 – English holdings of Singapore and Hong Kong seized. • Dutch lost East Indies, Malaya, and Burma.
Allied Generals of the Pacific • General Douglas MacArthur • “I shall return.” • “Old soldiers never die, they just fade away.” • 1880 – 1964 • Soldier life
The Philippines Fall • March 1942 General MacArthur withdrew his and Philippine troops to Bataan to try to defend themselves and hope for a Navy rescue.
The Philippines Fall • March 1942 – MacArthur gets out • April 1942 facing starvation and more attacks – US / Philippine defenders surrender • EXCEPT
The Philippines fall • The Battle of Corregidor • 2000 US soldiers and nurses withdrew to a fort and survived another month before surrendering.
The Philippines Fall: The Bataan Death March • 76,000 Filipinos and Americans taken prisoner. • Forced march of weak, sick prisoners through jungle heat. • 60 miles in 10 – 12 days.
The Bataan Death March • Prisoners denied water, rest. • Beaten, tortured and executed along the way. • 10,000 died. • 15,000 died in POW camps
The Geneva Convention: Treatment of prisoners in war • 1929: Prisoners of war shall at all times be humanely treated and protected, particularly against acts of violence. • Japan forgot that!
The War at Sea • Remember what three ships weren’t at Pearl Harbor??? • Aircraft Carriers • Saratoga • Lexington • Enterprise
War at Sea: Aircraft Carriers April 1942 – Doolittle’s Raid on Tokyo. OBJECTIVE: Psychological victory May 1942 – Battle of Coral Sea. OBJECTIVE: Stop the Japanese from invading Australia
Battle of Coral Sea • 5-day battle • US lost the Lexington and badly damaged the Yorktown. • Lost half our planes • About the same losses for the Japanese. • Ended in a draw – but the Japanese didn’t invade Australia.
Importance of the Battle of Coral Sea • It was carried out entirely by aircraft. • The enemy ships never even saw one another.
Allied Victories Turn the Tide • Battle of Midway • Battle of Guadacanal
Battle of Midway • Yamamoto wanted to try to lure the Americans to Midway Island to destroy what was left of the fleet.
Battle of Midway • June 1942 • Battle fought entirely in the air – like Coral Sea. • Disabled the Yorktown – then sunk by a Japanese sub. • Japan lost 4 carriers and 250 planes
Battle of Guadacanal • After Midway the Allies were on the offensive. • Jungle warfare • Snipers • Booby-traps • 11,000 marines v. 2,200 Japanese. • 5 month battle
Allied Policy: Island-Hopping • General MacArthur, Admiral William Halsey, Admiral Nimitz • By 1944, Allies able to use B-29 bombers to drop bombs over Japanese cities.
The Philippines Campaign • Battle of Leyte was the start in 1944. • Hard fought battle • 160,000 Americans • 80,000 Japanese • Only 1,000 Japanese taken prisoner. • First time KAMIKAZES used
The Philippines Campaign • 100,000 Filipino civilians were killed. • Not until June 1945 was the Philippines under US control. • ONE exception • 1974
Iwo Jima • The closer to Japan the more bloody the battles. • 74 days American bombers hit Japanese fortifications. • 110,000 American troops v. 25,000 Japanese
Iwo Jima • Three days of combat and US forces had only taken 700 yeards of ground. • Battle went for a month. • Only 216 Japanese prisoners taken.
Iwo Jima • 25,000 Americans died at Iwo Jima • 27 Medals of Honor were awarded for “uncommon valor”
Battle of Okinawa • The last obstacle before invading Japan. • April – June 1945. • 100,000 Japanese pledged to fight to the death. • 2,000 kamikaze attacks against American ships. • Countless Banzai charges.
Battle of Okinawa • Only 7,200 Japanese surrendered. • 50,000 Americans killed. • Costliest battle of the war.
The Manhattan Project • What would happen when the US went to invade Japan itself????
The Manhattan Project • 1939: Albert Einstein wrote FDR suggested creating an atomic bomb. • Project named “Manhattan Project”
The Manhattan Project • J. Robert Oppenheimer • Enrico Fermi • Work at the University of Chicago and Los Alamos, New Mexico. • “Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.”
The Decision to Drop the Bomb • Invading Japan would likely cost millions of Allied casualties. • Naval blockade might starve Japan, along with continued bombing. • Do a demonstration of the bomb for the Japanese? • Soften the demand for an unconditional surrender?
The decision to drop the bomb • FDR suddenly dies. • President Harry Truman was maybe not aware of the power of the bomb. • “You should do your weeping at Pearl Harbor”
The Decision to Drop the Bomb • August 6, 1945 – • The Enola Gay dropped the first bomb over Hiroshima. • 80,000 killed in an instant • Intense heat • Radiation • Fire and wind • 90% of the city destroyed.
The second bomb • August 9, 1945 - Nagasaki
Japan surrenders • CONDITIONAL surrender August 14, 1945. • The emperor remained. • V-J Day. • Surrender signed September 2, 1945 aboard the Missouri
Section 5 The Social Impact of War
Social Impact of War: African Americans • Jim Crow laws kept many African Americans from defense contract jobs. • Unofficial segregation in the North affected employment, education, housing
African Americans: Economic Discrimination • Despite desperate need for defense workers – most factories only wanted white workers. • A Phillip Randolph started to change that!
A. Phillip Randolph • 1889 – 1979 • Union Organizer for African Americans • Fought for Civil Rights for African Americans • Organized a march on Washington that made FDR do something radical.
FDR: Executive Order 8802 • For the first time, government acted against discrimination based on race, creed, color or national origin in employment. • Wasn’t that powerful – but it was a start.
Discrimination in WWII • 2 million African Americans did get defense contract jobs. • But still confined to live in ghettos. • 50% of housing for African Americans was substandard. • 14% of white American homes were substandard
Race Riots in WWII • Detroit: 1943 • 34 killed • “I’d rather see Hitler and Hirohito win than work next to a negro.” • Defense plant worker in 1943 Detroit • NYC: 1943
Soldiers and Segregation • African Americans and whites risked their lives in war. • But at home and war, racism and discrimination did not really change.
Soldiers and Segregation • Segregation of troops • African American units that could only be commanded by black officers. • Questions if black officers could give orders to white soldiers.
Soldiers and Segregation • “You know we don’t serve coloreds here,” the man repeated … We ignored him, and just stood there inside the door staring at what we had come to see – German prisoners of war who were having lunch at the counter … We continued to stare. This was really happening. It was no jive talk. The people of Salina, Kansas would serve these enemy soldiers and turn away black American Gis.” • Lloyd Brown, African American GI 1942.
Soldiers and Segregation • Lena Horne – jazz singer / actress. • Refused to perform when German POWs were seated ahead of African American soldiers.
Double V and CORE • The first V stood for victory against the Axis, the second for winning equality at home. • CORE – Congress of Racial Equality (1942) • Paved the way for the Civil Rights movement a decade later
Mexican Americans • WWII did give opportunities for employment many Mexican Americans had not had in 1940.
Mexican Americans: The Bracero Program • Shortage of farm laborers in WWII. • Agreement with Mexico to bring braceros to work in the US. • 200,000 came • REALLY overcrowded the barrios
Mexican Americans: The Zoot Suit Riots • A look favored by many Mexican American young men in Los Angeles. • Thought “un-American” by many. • Particularly by men in uniform! • Looked for zoot suiters to attack