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  1. Communication

  2. Good Communication • People share • Feelings • Ideas • Facts • Opinions

  3. Primary Skills Needed at Work • Listening • Reading • Writing • Speaking • Plus math skills are the primary elements needed for a good job performance • ID possible effects of poor basic skills on job or in life

  4. Effective Communication • Message received=message sent • Breakdowns • Receiver doesn’t understand • Something prevents message

  5. Noise Noise Noise Noise Noise Noise Noise Encodes Decodes Message Receiver Sender Decodes Feedback Encodes Receiver’s Environment Sender’s Environment Model of Communication • sheet

  6. Noise • Anything that distorts the message • Mechanical Sounds • Phone • Loud Conversation • Squeaky machinery • Psychological • Anger • Personality conflicts between sender and receiver

  7. Journal • Recall a recent conversation you had. Identify and explain each part of your communication as it relates to the communication model • sheet

  8. Listening Skills • Hearing vs. Listening • Hearing- recognizing sound • Listening- understanding what you hear • Sheet

  9. Failing to Listen • They are interrupted • Person walking into room • Phone • Others talking • They think they know what will be said • Only listen to part of conversation b/c “heard it before” • They don’t agree with what is being said • Often block info and refuse to listen • When you disagree with a speaker’s views how can you tactfully handle the situation?

  10. Failing to Listen part 2 • They have difficulty hearing • People do not listen when they can’t hear well • They are distracted by the speaker • Mannerisms • Monotone • Does not make eye contact • They do not understand the words • Not knowing the meaning of some of the words • They start thinking about something else • Minds wandering, fail to concentrate on what is said

  11. Good Listener • Pay attention to what is being said • Show a sincere interest • Don’t let yourself become distracted • Do not interrupt the speaker unless you do not understand

  12. Nonverbal Communication • A message that does not use written or spoken words

  13. Nonverbal Communication • Complement verbal communication • Reveal the truth • Convey information efficiently

  14. Recognizing Nonverbal Communication • Facial expressions • Gestures and posture • Vocal characteristics • Personal appearance • Touching behavior • Use of time and space

  15. Maximizing Nonverbal Communication Skills • Note facial expressions • Watch gestures and postures • Listen for vocal characteristics • Recognize physical appearance • Be careful with physical contact • Observe use of time and space

  16. Handshakes

  17. Nonverbal Communication • Alters the meaning of what a person says

  18. Non Verbal Videos How to tell if someone is lying David Letterman Sarah Palin Moment of Zen Laughing Balloon Boy Hillary Clinton d

  19. Reading And Comprehension Skills • Reading • In all work situations you will be expected to read many types of printed material • Comprehension • Not only knowing how to say words but understand their meaning • When you see an unfamiliar word, do you look it up, skip over it, or try to get its general meaning, without looking it up?

  20. Job Advancement • Reading about new trends happening in your field can help you advance in the workplace • List the documents that you and your coworkers are required to read on the job

  21. Sharpening Reading Skills • Read with purpose • Before you start: • Why are you reading what you are reading (PURPOSE) • Focus on the info you really need • What is the significance of tables, charts, and photos on a page to your comprehension of the material?

  22. Look over the material you are reading first • Decide HOW you want to read • Main ideas- read quickly • Read 1st paragraph, main headings, last paragraph • Details- Read slowly • Look over material then read it carefully

  23. Reading Skills cont… • Read for Meaning • Concentrate • Don’t let your mind wander • After you finish a section, think about the main ideas covered (picture it) • Outline main ideas on paper or in your mind

  24. Try to Improve Your Vocabulary • By improving vocab it will improve comprehension • Many businesses have their own special vocabulary • To describe certain products or operations • Makes communication more efficient • ID 5 work-related words that relate to a job, what is the meaning and purpose of these words?

  25. Writing and Keyboarding Skills • One of the most important skills that an employee can have • Poor communication causes loss of business and money

  26. Good Writing Skills • Composing written or printed communications • Requires that the presentation is: • Clear • Logical thoughts • Most written communications are now done on the computer • Give an example of a poorly written communication you have seen at work. How would you improve them?

  27. Keyboarding Skills • Not the same as writing skills • No writing involved, just keying-in data • Tool associated with office work • Used also in manufacturing work when needing a keyboard to control a machine

  28. Business Letters • Different than writing a personal letter • Letters are formal • Certain parts need to be included • A certain way the letter needs to look • Keeping a copy of every letter you send is important

  29. Parts of a Business Letter • Return Address • Usually stationary letterhead (your address) • Date • Inside Address • Name, business title and address of whom you are writing to

  30. Parts of a Business Letter • Salutation • Greeting (Dear) with Mr., Ms, Miss, Mrs. • Ends with a colon (:) • Body • Complimentary Close • Formally ends message • Sincerely, Cordially • Signature, Printed Name and Business Title • Reference Initials • Id’s the writer and typist of letter • KN/cf

  31. Types of Letters • Request letters –asking reader for something • Introduce your request and state why you are making it • Include any details necessary for the reader to respond to your request correctly • State clearly what action you want to take and when

  32. Types of Letters • Good News and Neutral Message letters • Letters that answer requests, express appreciation, or make announcements of events, polices or procedures • State the news or the main idea • Explain any details, facts, or reasons that relate to it • End the letter on a positive and friendly note

  33. Types of Letters • Bad-News Letters • Acknowledging orders you can’t fill, price increases etc. • Wording is very important, want to give bad news without giving bad impression of company • Say something positive that interests the reader, yet relates to the bad news • Explain why the request cannot be granted or why situation must be different • Offer a constructive suggestion or alternative • End the letter on a friendly, positive note

  34. Appearance of a Business Letter • SPACE • Margins- • Ideally, margins should be the same all around the letter

  35. Block-Form Letter • All parts begin in left margin • Creates a smooth appearance

  36. Modified Block-Form Letter • All parts begin at the left except the return address, date, complimentary close, name and signature

  37. Other Placements • Return address- line 12 • Date- (2 lines after return address) • Inside Address- (2-8 lines after date) depending on length of letter • Salutation- 2 lines below inside address • Body- 2 line below salutation single spaced with 2 spaces between paragraphs • Complimentary Close- 2 lines below body • Name and Title- 4 lines below close to give room for signature • White or off white paper, no smudges, fingerprints or creases

  38. Envelopes • Repeat the inside address- slightly below the center point of envelope • Return address – upper left corner • Use ALL CAPS for Postal service because it is easier for them to scan

  39. Memos • Informal message from one person or department to another • Within the same company • Short! • Deal with only one subject • Fast and easy to write

  40. Parts of a Memo

  41. Appearance of Memos • Some companies have specific stationary for this • Otherwise date, to, from, subject should be followed by a colon (:) from the left margin • Company Name Company Address Date: To: From: Subject: Engineers and scientists use memos to make requests, to give announcements, and sometimes to communicate reports. Memos that make requests or announcements are read quickly. For such memos, get to the point in the first paragraph--the first sentence, if possible. In other words, state what you want up front. In the format suggested here, you should single space your memos and use a serif typeface. Skip a line between paragraphs. The following link shows this format in a pdf display • Date • To- First names are Ok but, if your reader is your supervisor or someone your unfamiliar with refer to them by their title • From- First name OK unless a formal situation • Subject- Briefly state purpose ie: Office Supplies • Body- Same guidelines apply but keep it short

  42. Speaking Skills • Employers cite this as a basic skill in the business

  43. Speaking Skills • Speak clearly and Distinctly • Avoid running words together • Mumble? Open mouth a little wider when talking • Don’t talk with food or anything else in your mouth

  44. Speaking Skills • Speak to listener • Establish eye contact, even when speaking to more than one person • Use words that the listener will understand

  45. Speaking Skills • Speak with a Friendly and Courteous Tone • Say what you want in a positive way • If you have to criticize, be ready to offer a constructive idea • Avoid arguing and complaining

  46. Speaking Skills • Use Standard English • Use standard grammar and pronunciation when speaking • No slang • A person who uses standard English on the job appears more competent and better educated

  47. Speaking Skills • Talk “with” listener, not “to” the listener. • Keep message short and understandable • Make sure message is received correctly • Give listener a chance to give feedback

  48. Talking on the Phone • When the telephone rings • Answer it immediately • Greet the caller pleasantly, give the name of your company, your department or your own name • When talking, hold the phone about one inch from your lips and speak directly into the phone • Do not eat, drink, or chew gum while speaking on the phone • Keep a paper and pen to take messages and record the following: • Date, time of call, name of person receiving the message, and message itself • After writing down the message • Read it back, make sure the spelling of the name or company is correct • When the business call comes to an end, close the call pleasantly, thank the person for their assistance or cooperation • The impressions you make will influence the callers impressions of you and your company

  49. Speeches • #1 Fear • To help with this fear • PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE!!!!! • If you have visuals, practice with them • Time yourself, even if you do not have a time limit, (no longer than 20 min)