Understanding Face-to-Face & Mediated Communication Intercultural Communication = communication among diverse peoples (pg. 35).
IC Communication Competence “…refers to one’s skill in facilitating successful IC outcomes” “the multicultural person is one who respects cultures and has tolerance for differences” p35
Competence: Communication Approach, pg. 35-36 • Personality Strengths: Traits that affect IC are self-concept, self-disclosure, self-monitoring, and social relaxation. • Communication Skills: Message skills, behavior flexibility, interaction management, social skills. • Psychological Adjustment: Culture shock- frustration, stress and alienation in ambiguous situations. • Cultural Awareness: Understand social customs and social system of host country. How people think & behave. • Intercultural sensitivity • Cognitive or intercultural awareness • Behavior or intercultural adroitness
IC Communication Ethics Guides for living, the moral right & wrongs we learn from our culture. Different cultures have different ethical guidelines. Common to all is the belief that Peace is a fundamental human value. Respect Truthfulness Uniqueness Identification
Environmental Ethics • Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring -1962 • Paul Ehrlich’s -1968 The Population Bomb “What duties do humans have with respect to the environment, and why?”
Cultural Definitions ofCommunication “Culture is a code we learn & share…which both require communication” p. 39 How cultures define communication provides insight into the culture. K’ung-Fu-Tzu (550-478 B.C.E), later Latinized to Confucius, proposed a government based less on heredity than on morality & merit. P. 39 Confucianismis a philosophical system that has deep roots in Asian beliefs culture.
Family Structure Modern Chinese Family Confucianism provides an ethical system to guide interactions in the family, the community, and the state. Of the five social guidelines set forth, three relate to the family relationships: husband and wife (chaste conduct), father and son (love), elder brother and younger brother (order). The other two are between ruler and subjects (relation of righteousness), and friends (faithfulness). Filial piety is the chief virtue combining loyalty and reverence, sons honor father.
Particularism Unlike the United States where communication is guided by the value of equality, Confucian influenced cultures communicate based on status, intimacy, and context. The rules guide who talks to whom, about what, and in what manner. In Confucian cultures, a specific language form is used to address those who are older or who have higher status. When someone from the U.S. interacts with a Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Lao, Japanese --anyone from an area with a large Chinese population (now including Tibet and western Tajikistan), this rule will govern the interaction.
Role of Intermediaries The photos show wedding ceremonies in Japan, Korea, and China. The second effect that Confucianism has on interpersonal relationships involves situations where conflict can occur. Because confrontations or disputes disrupt harmony, direct dealings that may result in conflict are handled by a third party. This person negotiates an agreeable solution between the two or more parties.
1) Reciprocity,2) In-group/out group distinction, and 3) Overlap of personal and public relationships In-Out groups. You belong to one or the other. In-groups membership means you have access to a deeper level of disclosure and knowledge of the others in the group. Overlap of personal and public relationships. There is no distinction between business hours and private time. These three remaining effects relate to how people understand their role in relationship to others. Reciprocity means each party in a complementary relationship owes the other something. It is an obligation and it ensures that someone will always be looking out for you.
Communication theories reflect how a culture thinks Confucianism guides interpersonal relationships by focusing on balance and harmony. Here are five specific differences between Asian and Western communication: 1. Particularism 2. Role of intermediaries 3. Reciprocity 4. In-group/out-group distinction 5. Overlap of personal and public relationships Connections
Confucian Verbal Strategies were developed to ensure the values of balance and harmony were observed. • Compliments, greeting rituals, etc. reinforce understanding and guide interpersonal relationships. • Use of honorific forms of speech to distinguish social status, gender, occasion, and degree of intimacy. • Collectivism mandates respect for the relationship is emphasized over information disclosed. • Modesty and concern about loss of face dominate. Communication is therefore defined as an infinite interpretive process where all parties are searching to develop and maintain social relationships.
Western Perspectives on Communication • Communication is intentional, is symbolic, and involves at least two people. • Context = Culture Components of Communication: Berlo Model
The Media of Intercultural Communication Human Couriers & Intermediaries Telephone/Cell & the Internet are todays modes Mediated communication. Features include language use, design elements, social network sites From semaphore flags to smoke signals, ticker tape to the telegraph, carrier pigeons to carrier radio waves, human history has countless examples of technologies developed to help people communicate.
The Special Case of Prejudice & Racism • Prejudice is discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior. • Hate Speech includes threats or verbal slurs directed against specific groups, burning crosses, painting swastikas (p.52) Racism defined (dictionary.com) rac·ism a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others. 2. a policy, system of government, etc., based upon or fostering such a doctrine; discrimination. 3. hatred or intolerance of another race or other races. Origin: 1865–70; < French racisme.
“Communication can play a role in either spreading prejudice & racism or stopping their spread” p. 52 “Research shows that evaluations of individual minority group members can be biased by overheard derogatory ethnic labels when the person’s behavior is less than perfect” (p. 52)
Hate Speech Debate • Hate speech can cue prejudicial behaviors in others.
Hank Williams Jr. Blasts Obama Again "We’ve got a Muslim for a President who hates cowboys, hates cowgirls, hates fishing, hates farming, loves gays, and we hate him," Williams Jr. bellowed. As the Dallas Sun reported, the crowd responded with a loud cheer. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/03/hank-williams-jr-obama-gays_n_1852739.html
“What Would You Do” Experiment Shopping While Black http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWtiPcX-mZ0
How to effect change? • Racism and prejudicial beliefs are often rooted in early childhood socialization and fostered in communication with people who are themselves prejudiced and racist. • Is it possible to combat racism and prejudice? • Establish cultural norms against behavior. • Speak up against racism/prejudicial comments. Your vocal opinions matter.