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3.1 Tracing the path of evolution to Homo sapiens from the universal ancestor of all life

3.1 Tracing the path of evolution to Homo sapiens from the universal ancestor of all life

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3.1 Tracing the path of evolution to Homo sapiens from the universal ancestor of all life

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  1. 3.1 Tracing the path of evolution to Homo sapiens from the universal ancestor of all life

  2. 3.2 Monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groups

  3. 3.4(1) The forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrates

  4. 3.4(2) The forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrates

  5. 3.4(3) The forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrates

  6. 3.4(4) The forelimb skeletons of some tetrapod vertebrates

  7. 3.5 The eyes of a vertebrate and a cephalopod are an example of convergent evolution

  8. 3.6 Darwin’s examples of ways in which the number of shell plates of a barnacle has been reduced

  9. 3.7(1) Parallel evolution

  10. 3.7(2) Parallel evolution • Maxillipeds = feeding appendages

  11. 3.8 Bird groups in which similar bill shape has evolved independently as an adaptation for feeding

  12. 3.9 Variation in the shape and length of the bill among sandpipers

  13. 3.10 Different evolutionary paths to the same functional end may be followed in different groups

  14. 3.11 Micrographs show the similarities—and differences—among several vertebrate embryos

  15. 3.12 An example of the acquisition and loss of individualization Triassic lizard primitive Eocene whale – reduced differentiation modern mammals

  16. 3.13 Paedomorphosis in salamanders Reproducing, adult aquatic form in axolotl Ambystoma mexicanus (C) but not in A. tigrinum (A, aquatic larva; B, terrestrial adult)

  17. 3.14 Allometric differences in the jaws among three closely related families of fishes

  18. 3.17 Perhaps the most famous example of allometry and peramorphosis is the extinct “Irish elk”

  19. 3.18 Skulls of the progenetic dwarf salamander and a typical nonprogenetic relative • Skull of adult dwarf Thorius (left) has juvenile features

  20. 3.19 Plants of the genus Philodendron, such as this Jamaican climber, are lianas HETEROTOPY

  21. 3.20 An example of reduction and loss of structures during evolution Early lobe-finned fishes (A, Devonian) – number of bones higher than in early amniotes (B, Permian). (C) is a modern dog. Note reduction of lower jaw bones.

  22. 3.22 Adaptive radiation of Darwin’s finches in the Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island

  23. 3.23 Some members of the Hawaiian silversword alliance with different growth forms Three closely related plants : (A) rosette (no stem); (B) stemmed rosette; (C) small shrub

  24. 3.24 A sample of the diverse head shapes among the Cichlidae of the African Great Lakes Different morphology due to different diet and mode of feeding