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  1. Feedback Learning Objectives To understand the different types of feedback. To know which type of feedback to use.

  2. What is feedback? Task: Discuss what you think feedback is? When have you experienced feedback? What type? How would you define feedback? Feedback is any information received by the learner as a result of a movement. It occurs during or after the movement.

  3. Types of Feedback Intrinsic – Extrinsic Concurrent – Terminal Positive – Negative Delayed Feedback Knowledge of Results (KR) Knowledge of Performance (KP)

  4. Intrinsic (internal) & Extrinsic (external) Feedback INTRINSIC feedback is information that comes from proprioceptors within the body. It is also known as kinaesthetic feedback. Think of examples from the following sports: football, basketball, trampolining and your sport. EXTRINSIC feedback is information that comes from outside of the yourself. Who might provide extrinsic feedback?

  5. Terminal, Concurrent & Delayed Feedback TERMINAL feedback is information given after the movement has been completed. DELAYED feedback is information given some time after the performance. CONCURRENT feedback is information given during the performance. It can be either intrinsic or extrinsic.

  6. Positive & Negative Feedback POSITIVE feedback is praise for a successful performance. Aimed at motivating performer. NEGATIVE feedback is external information about how a performance was incorrect. Task: If you were coaching someone trying to learn to serve in tennis which type of feedback would you use? What factors would influence your decision?

  7. Knowledge of Results (KR) KR is knowing how well you did in terms of the outcome of your actions. How successful was it? This could come from the performer or someone else. Essential for motivation and future improvement. Think about how difficult it would be to learn to shoot in netball without any KR.

  8. Knowledge of Performance (KP) KP is information about how well the movement was executed. Often used straight after KR. Again, essential for future improvement. Usually comes from external sources, although can be internal for expert performers. Task: What type of feedback do you think yr7 pupils taking part in a shot putt lesson would prefer and why? Does this raise any problems?

  9. Which feedback is the best? Clearly, all types are relevant in certain situations. List the factors that might affect the choice of feedback.

  10. Feedback and the performer’s stage of learning. Autonomous learners (experts) use more intrinsic feedback. Greater experience and kinaesthetic awareness and less reliant on coach reassurance. Autonomous learners more able to access concurrent feedback. Can use less attention on the actual performance. Cognitive learners (beginners) need more positive feedback, autonomous learners can take constructive negative feedback without demotivation. Beginners love KR, experts often prefer KP.

  11. Other factors affecting choice of feedback Highly complex or very fast skills are often unable to access concurrent feedback and require terminal feedback. If the purpose of participation is to build motivation and have fun then positive feedback is essential. If the outcome of an event is euphoria or huge disappointment then delayed feedback is generally preferred.

  12. Exam Question You are asked to run coaching sessions for an under 8’s football group and a University basketball 1st team. Describe how your use of feedback would be different in both situations and explain why. (10 marks)