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Housekeeping

Housekeeping

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Housekeeping

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  1. Housekeeping • Purpose and goals • Meeting times • Syllabus • Texts • Online Http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/raf/recordisplay.cfm?deid=12460 • Next class reading materials • Course outline • Other issues?

  2. What is Risk?What is Ecological Risk Assessment?

  3. Definition The noun "risk" has 4 senses in WordNet.1. hazard, jeopardy, peril, risk -- (a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune; "drinking alcohol is a health hazard") 2. risk, peril, danger -- (a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury; "he saw the rewards but not the risks of crime"; "there was a danger he would do the wrong thing") 3. risk, risk of infection -- (the probability of becoming infected given that exposure to an infectious agent has occurred) 4. risk, risk of exposure -- (the probability of being exposed to an infectious agent)

  4. Risk Perception Quiz • Riding a bicycle to and from your suburban home to work, a distance of 20km each way, each working day for 4 years. b. Working for one year in a coal mine (assuming a 40 hour working week). c. Living 4 km from a nuclear reactor for 12 months. d. Eating peanut butter sandwiches for lunch three times a week for 20 years. e. Drinking two glasses of wine, twice per weekend, for 10 years. • The number of additional deaths per year for the example above are: a. 3840 (assuming 240 working days per year), b. 1920, c. 0.02, d. 78 (assuming 1 tablespoon per serve of sandwiches), e. 520 (assuming four glasses make ½ litre). So, the ‘right’ order is c. (least risky), d., e., b., a. (most risky).

  5. Risky Activities? Activities that increase chance of death by one in a million per year (after Wilson 1979). Activities Cause of death Smoking 1.4 cigarettes Cancer, heart disease Spending 1 hour in a coal mine Black lung disease Traveling 15 km by bicycle Accident Traveling 500 km by car Accident Flying 1500 km by jet Accident Living 2 months in brick bldg Cancer from radioactivity One chest X-ray Cancer from radiation Living 2 months w/a smoker Cancer, heart disease Eating 40 tblspns peanut butter Liver cancer Living 50 yrs w/in 8 km nuclear reactor Cancer from radiation (accident) Living 20 years near a PVC plant Cancer from vinyl chloride Drinking Miami water for 1 year Cancer from chloroform Drinking ½ liter of wine Cirrhosis of the liver

  6. - Ecological risk assessments are developed within a risk management context to evaluate human-induced changes that are considered undesirable. Changes often considered undesirable are those that alter important structural or functional characteristics or components of ecosystems.

  7. Descriptions of adverse effects can be: • Qualitative judgments • Quantitative probabilities • ERAs can be • Predictive • Retrospective • Predictive AND retrospective • Other closely related terminology: • Hazard assessment • Comparative risk assessment • Cumulative ecological risk assessment • Environmental impact statement

  8. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Technical Issue Paper (TIP) 1997.

  9. EXPOSURE EFFECTS RISK EXPOSURE EFFECTS Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Technical Issue Paper (TIP) 1997.

  10. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Technical Issue Paper (TIP) 1997.

  11. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Technical Issue Paper (TIP) 1997.

  12. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Technical Issue Paper (TIP) 1997.

  13. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Technical Issue Paper (TIP) 1997.