targeted and intensive behavioral support tracy gershwin mueller ph d n.
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Targeted and Intensive Behavioral Support Tracy Gershwin Mueller, Ph.D.

Targeted and Intensive Behavioral Support Tracy Gershwin Mueller, Ph.D.

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Targeted and Intensive Behavioral Support Tracy Gershwin Mueller, Ph.D.

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  1. Targeted and Intensive Behavioral SupportTracy Gershwin Mueller, Ph.D.

  2. Goals • Define the logic and core features of Targeted and Intensive level interventions • Self-assess if targeted and intensive interventions are a “good fit” for your school • Build action plan for implementation

  3. Challenge for Schools Produce students who are academically and socially competent But, must meet these outcomes in the face of… Students from increasingly varied backgrounds Decreasing funding

  4. Problems at Schools and on and on and on and on and on and on and on Struggling readers Can’t read at all Letter/word reversal Comprehension difficulties Memorization difficulties Retention problems English language learners Lack of number recognition Math fact deficits Homework completion Sloppy work Test anxiety Oral reading fluency Poor writing skills • Fights • Property destruction • Weapons violation • Violence toward teachers • Tobacco use • Drug use • Alcohol use • Insubordination • Noncompliance • Late to class • Truancy • Inappropriate language • Harassment • Trespassing • Vandalism • Verbal abuse

  5. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Intensive Interventions Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Targeted Interventions Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Universal Interventions School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~15% ~80% of Students

  6. Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making OUTCOMES Systems Outcomes Practices Supporting Student Behavior

  7. Practices • Continuum of supports

  8. Tier 1/Universal School-Wide Assessment School-Wide Prevention Systems Assessment Intervention Tier 2/Secondary Tier 3/ Tertiary Small Group Interventions(CICO, etc) Attendance, RFA, ODR, GPA, etc. Group Interventions with Individualized components CICO data, data from other targeted groups Function-based intervention Functional Behavior Assessment Adapted from T. Scott, 2004

  9. Practices • Continuum of supports • Documentation for targeted and intensive interventions • What intervention consists of • Materials needed • Data-based decision rules • Plan for progress monitoring • Interventions for academic and social behavior linked

  10. District Support • Our Goal: Supporting students with significant challenges • With positive outcomes • With fidelity • Over time

  11. Challenges for Districts • Universal level of PBS available for ALL students • Moving from one-student at a time, reactive approaches to capacity within schools to support the behavior of ALL students? • Developing and implementing systems needed for tertiary implementation • Referrals to Special Education seen as the “intervention” • FBA viewed as required “paperwork” vs. a needed part of designing an intervention • Interventions the system is familiar with vs. ones likely to produce an effect

  12. Districts Support School Practices • District support • Investment in 2-4 targeted interventions • Initial and on-going training for relevant personnel • Build capacity in efficient FBA • Technical assistance available for comprehensive FBA/BSP • On-site coaching for new PBIS schools • Hiring practices promote implementation of evidence-based interventions • Practices to be supported • Targeted interventions • Function-based support • Data-based decision rules

  13. What Do You Need?

  14. How We Teach Makes A Difference! Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005

  15. How We Teach Makes A Difference! Diana Browning Wright, Teaching and Learning Trainings, 2005

  16. Accommodations • Modifications Do not fundamentally alter or lower expectations or standards in instructional level, content or performance criteria. Do fundamentally alter or lower expectations or standards in instructional level, content or performance criteria. Changes are made in order to provide equal access to learning and equal opportunity to demonstrate what is known. Changes are made to provide student meaningful & productive learning experiences based on individual needs & abilities. Grading is same Grading is different Just a Reminder. . .

  17. Small Group / Targeted Interventions Social Skill Training Self-Management Mentors Check-in Check-out (CICO) Peer tutoring / Peer Network Academic support

  18. Major Features of Targeted Interventions • Intervention is continuously available • Rapid access to intervention (72 hr) • Very low effort by teachers • Consistent with school-wide expectations • Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school • Home/school linkage • Flexible intervention based on assessment • Functional Assessment • Adequate resources (admin, team) • weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a week for coordination • Student chooses to participate • Continuous monitoring for decision-making

  19. Universal Strategies: School-Wide Essential Features • Statement of purpose • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules) • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors • Procedures for record-keeping and decision making ( • Family Awareness and Involvement

  20. Best Elementary

  21. The key BEHAVIOR is functionally related to the TEACHING ENVIRONMENT

  22. Small Group / Targeted Interventions • When universals not sufficient to impact behavior • When students display chronic patterns • When concerns arise regarding students’ behavior

  23. Small Group Starting Points • Universals firmly in place • Data used consistently in team meetings • Data decision rules to identify students who need secondary supports Equal attention to practices (student support) and systems (adult support)

  24. Pre-Requisites • Universals must be well established and in-place • Target practices that are preferred or promising (empirically validated) • Teach basic features of strategies first (general case) • Keys • Match intervention to student need • Staff implementing interventions have skills and support • ALL staff aware of interventions and their part in promoting generalization • Focus on the systems to support throughout

  25. Important Themes • Part of a continuum – must link to school-wide PBIS system • Efficient and effective way to identify students • Assessment = simple sort • Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized

  26. Small Group / Targeted Interventions Consider • Not fixed group • Student’s needs vary across continuum over time and within academic/social area • Least intrusive but matched to student need

  27. Targeted Interventions: Building Blocks • Teach/build pro-social replacement behaviors • Build maintenance and generalization strategies to promote use • Attend to possible function of the problem behavior

  28. Important Themes • Small group = all students get the same intervention (e.g., pull out social skills) • Targeted = altering classroom or other environment to support a small number of students but will likely benefit all students (e.g., classroom environment changes) Common misperception is that these strategies will “fix” the student and the classroom teacher does not need to be an active participant since “specialists” or outside staff are often involved in the intervention – Important to stress that these interventions will require high level of involvement among ALL staff within the school building

  29. Essential Features Emphasis is on continuum and interrelated components of data, practices, systems

  30. Small Group / Targeted Interventions • Data • Systematic way to identify at-risk students (e.g., office referrals, teacher nomination, rating scales) • Measure progress and fade support slowly • Practices • Within class first option • Pull out programs must have generalization strategies • Link small group with school-wide rules and social skills • Academic & social strategies • Systems • Training for ALL staff on procedures • Options for students who transfer in during school year

  31. Screening & Assessment • Office discipline referral data-decision rules • 3 ODR for same offense = child study team • Review of attendance, grades, achievement, other archival data • Teacher referral • Simple form • Quick response

  32. Screening & Assessment • Routine review of individual student data • Efficient teacher referral system • Parent referral • Screening tools • Look for those students who are often “under the radar”... • Students who change addresses frequently • Temporary or seasonal farmers or workers in the community • Homeless students • Students in foster care or juvenile service homes

  33. Assessment • Focus is on sorting student for service, not “diagnosis and placement.” • Social-Behavioral Concerns • Social skills • Self-management • Academic Concerns • Peer Tutors • Check in • Homework club • Emotional Concerns • Adult mentors

  34. Small Group / Targeted Interventions • Social Skill Training • Self-Management • Mentors/Check-in • Peer tutoring / Peer Network • Academic support • Individual plans (FBA)

  35. Work Time What is one targeted strategy you currently use in your School?

  36. Social Skills • Identify critical skills (deficit or performance problem) • Develop social skill lessons • “Tell, show, practice” • Match language to school-wide expectations • Generalization strategies Must provide clear & specific activities all staff follow to promote generalization & make sure staff using strategies

  37. Assessment: Skill Selection(Data) • Teacher Ratings • Ratings by others • Direct Observation Importance of discussing cultural, language, and other factors that impact perceptions of “appropriate” social skills

  38. Planning Requirements(practices, systems) • Curriculum / Lesson Plans • Adapt/adopt • Group procedures • Generalization strategies

  39. Lesson Components(practices) • rule for when to use the skill • set of useful skill variations • teach the rule (TELL) • demonstrate the skill (SHOW) • students practice the skill (PRACTICE) • review and test the skill (PRACTICE) • assign homework (PRACTICE) Teaching social skills follows the same format as teaching academic skills

  40. Group Procedures(practices, system) • Who & how many in the group? • 5-8 • When & how long meet? • At least weekly over the school year • Who teaches? • Combination • Basic behavior management • Routines • Expectations • Attention signal • Incentives Social skill outcomes, expectations, etc. must be connected to the school-wide PBIS system

  41. Social Skills Club Student Selection • Designed to meet the needs of repeat offenders • Criteria for selection: 8 or more referrals across previous school year Focus =

  42. Social Skills Club • Parent letters to extend “invitation” • Voluntary participation • Presented as prevention/support • Encouraged parent participation Focus =

  43. Social Skills ClubInstructors • Special Education teacher with fluency in social skills instruction • General education class teacher • Access to technical assistance and resources Focus =

  44. Social Skills ClubGroup Management • Two adults • Club expectations linked to school-wide expectations • Rules and expectations for group participation in role play • Planned fun • Reinforcement system linked to school-wide system Focus =

  45. Social Skills ClubCurriculum & Delivery of Instruction • Collected and prepared materials from a variety of sources. • One hour per week after school for the academic school year • Attention to pre-requisite skills for participating in lessons. • Structured format: Advanced Organizer, Teach, Model, Role play, Review, Test & Homework Focus =

  46. Social Skills Clubgeneralization • Posters of each lesson given to classroom teachers to display in class and use as visual prompt. • “Club” participants present weekly social skill lesson to from club to their class. • Staff instructed on how to prompt and reinforce Focus =

  47. Self-Management • Teach self-monitoring & targeted social skills simultaneously • Practice self-monitoring until students accurately self-monitor at 80% or better • Periodic checks on accuracy It is not simply giving students a self-evaluation check-list, must teach and practice to fluency and reinforce both accurate self-evaluation and appropriate behavior

  48. Check-in • Focus is on academic & social compliance • AM / PM • Teach strategies to enter work /objectives to accomplish • Agendas • All staff must prompt/reinforce student use Emphasize the goal is to fade out the check-in so the focus should be on reinforcing students for accurately self-monitoring and work completion across the school day