Journal – Reconstruction Goals Think about the disunity in America, the Economic, Political and Social problems that must be dealt with as the Civil War ended. Brain storm about the problems that needed to be addressed.
Instructions:write in complete sentences • Write 3 Reconstruction goals for the United States as they begin the Reconstruction process. * Goals should be details or specifics on how to carry them out • Think About: > How can Northern resources help the South? > Ways the South can rebuild their economy > Assistance to newly freed slaves > Bringing the Confederate states back into the union > New laws
1. Reunite the former Confederate states with the Union 2. Redefine the rights and status of blacks 3. Literally rebuild the South’s economy Goals of Reconstruction
Reconstruction Plans Lincoln’s Plan Johnson’s Plan Congressional Reconstruction p. 376-380
Lenient • 10% Plan – 10 % of 1860 voting pop. agreed • Don’t punish entire state for actions of a few leaders • Pardon ALL except high rank Confed. leaders • Form a new state gov. and constitution Lincoln’s Plan
Johnson • born poor • built own wealth • Southern Democrat • Remained loyal to Union • Former slave Owner • Did not like wealthy planters • For abolition • Anti civil rights President Andrew Johnson Why was he Lincoln’s V.P.?
Abolish slavery • Declare secession illegal • Swear allegiance to Union • ratify 13th Amendment • Pardon all southerners who supported abolition • Pardon could only be given to wealthy & Confed. leaders by the Pres. Johnson’s Plan - South liked plan • New state gov’t & const.
Passed by Radical Republicans Requirements • 50% of state voters agree • divide into Military districts • Ratify 14th & 15th amend. • Disenfranchisement for Confed. leaders • Black men in Congress • Freedmen’s Bureau • New state gov. & constitution Congressional Plan • MorePunishment • for the South
Radical Congress • Carpetbaggers • Scalawags • African Americans • What do you believe were the goals of this Congress - Punish the South - Push for more equality
Comparison Lincoln He was not able to carry it out He wanted easy transition • Who’s plan was the easiest? Why?? • Who did Johnson believe was responsible for Reconstruction? • Who did the Radicals believe was responsible for Reconstruction? The President - him Congress
Amendments: • 13th - official abolished slavery > made emancipation legal • 14th - declared that all native born or naturalized persons were citizens and had the same rights as citizens > nullified the Supreme Courts decision on the Dred Scott case • 15th - no one could be denied the right to vote based on race, color, or previousservitude 3mins
The “New South” A. Economic struggles B. Blacks register to vote C. Freedmen’s Bureau D. Carpetbaggers & Scalawags E. Black Codes p. 385
“New” South cont… Treatment & Progress for Blacks • Black codes passed in the South around 1865 > laws intended to stop the movement of equality for blacks > codes restored restrictions of slavery (ex. SC & MS Plans) p. 379
Black Code Examples • could not rent or lease farmland • could not testify against whites • could not start their own business • could not carry a weapon • could not serve on a jury • could not marry a white Precursor to Jim Crow Laws -literacy test - poll tax - grandfather clause
Freedmen’s Bureau Act 1865 • established by Congress • assist former slaves and poor whites in South • Distribute clothes, food set up hospitals, schools, and teacher-training centers * Greatest contribution - education p. 388
Sharecropping Landowner Storekeeper Arranges credit for sharecroppers, may own store Owes balance of crops Owes labor + 1/3 to ½ of crop Provides land, seed, tools, work animal Provides credit to buy food, clothes, etc. Sharecropper
Sharecropping • Advantages - planters had land worked w/out paying workers - workers had a place to live • Drawbacks - No income until harvest - had to buy goods on credit - had to work out of poverty Endless Cycle p. 391
Civil Rights Act of 1866 • 14th Amendment • Forbid black codes • tried to strengthen the Freedmen's Bureau • President Johnson vetoedthe bill > drove a wedge between himself and Congress • Congress overrode President Johnson's veto > 1st time Congress had done this Example of Checks and Balance
The Veto Use cartoon analysis
Johnson's Impeachment 1867: • Impeach - to charge Federal official with a crime • Radicals felt Johnson was always working against reconstruction & not carrying out constitutional duties. i.e. - removed military leaders who helped blacks - vetoed Freedmen Act & Civil Rights Act - violated the Tenure of Office Act p. 381
Election of Grant 1868: • Southerners were very against • 15th amendment passed ~ due to fear of restrictions being placed on blacks for voting for Grant • KKK organized in reaction - southern democrats p. 394
Gains in Education • 80% over age 20 were illiterate • public and private organizations set up education facilities • Hampton Institute (VA) - college for blacks • by 1877 - 600,000 enrolled in elementary schools p. 388
Gains in Politics • held offices in local, state and federal positions • many office holders were ministers and teachers • South had few blacks in office • only SC had a black majority in state legislature
Journal – Election of 1876 Answer these questions in complete sentences 1. What candidate carried most of the South? 2. Why do you think most of the South voted for him? 3. What candidate carried the west? 4. What appears to be unusual about this election?
End of Reconstruction: • Reconstruction ended after a close presidential race in 1876 > Democrat - Sam Tilden > Rep. - Rutherford Hayes • close race was decided by 3 states > SC, LA, and FL - all still had military reconstruction gov'ts
Compromise of 1877: • Southern Democrats would cast Republican electoral votes for Hayes IF…. Hayes would remove the last federal troops out of the South • Hayes wanted to win the election • Hayes agreed and removed military troops when he became President. • Officially ended Reconstruction p. 399
Jim Crow Laws • Enacted between 1876 and 1965 • State and local laws • made segregation official • new generation in south more racist • Laws prevented equality for blacks i.e. Segregation in public places p. 388
Jim Crow Laws • Rice appeared on stage as Jim Crow • performed in Minstrel show • makeup stereotyping blacks • Jim Crow, a term that referred to blacks
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): “Separate but Equal” • 30 yr old, Plessy (1/8th black jailed for sitting on a whites only railway car) - he sued claiming unconstitutional • Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as both races had access to equal facilities. • Booker T. Washington response p. 388
Journal - Reconstruction Success or Failure ?? Read Point / Counter Point on p. 400 and answer the following questions in complete sentences.
1. How did Reconstruction improve the lives of African Americans? 2. What caused the loss of support for Reconstruction? 3. How did racial bias affect the success of Reconstruction? 4. What are the 2 major arguments each side makes for the failure or success of Reconstruction? 5. Do you feel it was a success or failure? WHY?
EOC Workbook • Pages 85 (1,2) 93 (1,2)
Link and Learn Pages - Reconstruction 13 (Plessy v. Ferguson) 18 (Black codes, Jim Crow laws) 22 (Reconstruction) Pages – Civil War 9 (Anaconda Plan) 12 (Emancipating the slaves) 32 (Secession)