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Training physiology and physical conditioning of archery - training

Training physiology and physical conditioning of archery - training

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Training physiology and physical conditioning of archery - training

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  1. Training physiology and physical conditioning of archery - training Dr. Jang Jia-Tzer MD. Huang, Lin-Chi

  2. 週訓練 Physical conditioning -endurance -strength -speed -flexibility -coordination 體能 訓練方式 skill tactic Periodization: -preparation phase -specific phase -competitive phase -transition phase Training pattern: Continuous Interval Circulated Repeated competition 適應-效果 劑量 adaptation Training effect↑ Training dose Training system model (Jang, 2009)

  3. 身體活動﹕ 方式 劑量 頻率持續時間 Physical activity -Type -Intensity -Frequency -Duration • Coach • Sport scientist 調整 適應 提昇生理機能 產生訓練效果 改善競技能力 Adjustment Athlete 未產生適應 產生疲勞 降低運動能力 競技能力不穩定 Positive - adapted - improve physical mechanism - training effects - improve performance Negative - unadapted - fatigue - decrease performance - unstable performance

  4. 訓練階段與週期Training phases & periodization 4

  5. Preparation phase 準備期 Specific phase專項期 Periodization 訓練階段劃分 competition phase 比賽期 transition phase 過渡期 General capacity 一般體能 Phase goal 週期目的 Specific capacity專項體能 Skills 技術 Week training pattern 週訓練型態 3 time / week 5 times / week Training plan protocol 6 times / week Warm-up, Skill, endurance Training units 訓練單元 2 units 3 units Warm-up, skill, endurance﹐ strength Training methodology 訓練方式 Continuous Interval Repeated Training content 訓練內容 Intensity Reps. Set

  6. preparationspecific -I specific -II competition Steady state 6

  7. Trainable capacity 可訓練性  Aerobic endurance 有氧耐力  Maximum strength 最大力量 (1RM)  Strength endurance力量耐力  coordination 協調  flexibility 柔軟度  skill 技術  tactic 戰術 7 7

  8. Sport performance and physical capacity運動能力與體能 Physical capacity endurance strength speed flexibility Skill performance coordination Relationship of physical capacity, coordination and skill (Neumann et al. 2002, Nr. 075, S 117 ) 8 8 8

  9. physical capacity model Physical capacity strength speed endurance flexibility -reactive speed -acceleration -fast frequency -short period endurance -middle period endurance -long period endurance -range of motion -stretching of muscle -maximal strength -speed strength -strength endurance -reaction strength Physical capacity and it’s sub-combination (Martin et al. 1991, Nr. 080, S 67) 9 9 9

  10. Relationship of physical capacities體能交互關係 10 10

  11. 力量耐力 Strength endurance 最大力量 Maximum strength endurance Speed strength endurance Maximum strength Speed strength power Starting power 11 11 11

  12. Strength training pattern Hypertrophy 肌肉橫斷面 Maximal strength 最大肌力 Strength endurance 力量耐力 12

  13. Gain cross section of muscle (Buhrle 1985, Nr.009, S 128) 14 14 14 14

  14. Maximal strength gain in short period(Buhrle 1985, Nr.009, S 130) 15 15 15 15

  15. Strength endurance training Pampus et al. 1989, Nr. 009, S 132 16 16 16 16

  16. Circulated strength endurance training end Lower body lower lower lower Up body up up up start 17 17 17 17

  17. Endurance and energy supply pathway耐力與能量提供路徑 Aerobic endurance Anaerobic endurance Energy supply pathway Energy -ATP-PC-anaerobic glycolysis -aerobics (carbohydrates + free fat acid )

  18. 19 19 19

  19. 2-4mmol/l Capacity compensation basic developing competitive Fat + carbohydrate carbohydrate>fat carbohydrate 2 mmol/l 2-4 mmol/l > 4 mmol/l La. curve intensity Aerobic threshold Anaerobic threshold 20 20 20

  20. Training physiology MD. Huang, Lin-Chi

  21. Archery is an endurance sport !

  22. HR. La. VO2max heart day week month month Time requirement for improving physical parameters (Neumann/Hettenrott 2002) 23 23

  23. Bio-parameters and judgement (Hottenrott, 1994) 24

  24. Intensity 強度 Training Intensity 訓練強度 training Disturbance 干擾 • Rest time • Decrease intensity • 休息/降低強度 Adaptation Procedure 適應程序 Recovery 恢復 Adaptation 適應 Physical and psychological adaptation 生/心理適應 Training effect Increase physical function 提升生理功能 Bio-effect chain of training (Grosse et al., 2001) 25

  25. intensity * 強度 • frequency * 頻率 • duration* 持續時間 • pattern* 訓練模式 • time • equipment • psychology • season • gender • age Adaptation Factors to adaptation (Weineck 1996. Nr. 035, S 26) 26

  26. Intensity 強度 Overcompensation 超補償 Recovery 恢復 Fatigue 疲勞 Jakolew’s physical adaptation procedure (Nr. 009, S 94) Jakolew 體能適應程序 27

  27. Lasting 1-2day(s) (the longest 3days) overcompensation Physical capacity Training time fatigue Recovery time 2-3days training Training & adaptation 28 Physical training and adaptation (In: Martin et al. 1991: Handbuch Trainingslehre)

  28. 100 Endu. Endu. 80 Stren. Endu. skill Stren. 70 skill Stren. skill skill Endu. Coor. Coor. Warm up Warm up Warm up Warm up Warm up Warm up Mon. Tue. Wed. Thu. Fri. Sat. Week training intensity (%) 29

  29. Training intensity and adaptation (Jang, 2005) 30

  30. Rest HR. (min-1) Heart rate Max HR. (min-1) Threshold HR. (min-1) speed 30m/ 100m (m/s) Best record strength 1RM (kg) Training parameters HR (min-1) Aerobic threshold Speed (m/s) Lactate threshold HR (min-1) Anaerobic threshold Speed (m/s) Cooper-test Distance (m) 31

  31. Normative data for the Cooper Test (http://www.brianmac.co.uk/gentest.htm) 32

  32. Main physical parameters of training

  33. Lactate acid - A metabolite from anaerobic metabolism. The judgment of … • Exercise intensity • Energy & metabolism • Exercise capacity of training or competition • Aerobic capacity • Training extent • Training pattern (Neumann et al., 1993) 34

  34. Elimination of Lactate • Liver 50% 肝 • Inactive muscle groups 30% 不活動肌群 • Heart 10% 心臟 • Kidney 10% 腎臟 • In 1 hour after exercise will drop back to normal value. • athlete 0.5 mmol/l/min • untrained 0.3 mmol/l/min • Active > static recovery (Neumann et al., 1991) 35

  35. 36

  36. Heart Rate • Training effects 訓練效果 • Training intensity 訓練強度 • Capacity of recovery 恢復能力 • Capacity of exercise 運動能力 • Capacity of cardio-respiratory 心肺能力 37

  37. Heart Rate • HR.max:220-age • HRmax load:1000m Test • Basic endurance I : 50-65%HRmax(基礎耐力 I) • Basic endurance II:65-85% HRmax(基礎耐力 II) • Basic endurance II-III:85-90% HRmax • Basic endurance III:90-95% HRmax • Competition endurance:95-100% HRmax 38

  38. Cardio-respiratory conditioning (endurance training)心肺耐力訓練 39 39

  39. Effects of endurance training (Hollmann 1982) 40 40 40

  40. Benefits to archer • Cardio conditioning will lower the resting heart rate and the recovery heart rate. • benefits …. • decreasing nervous adrenaline during high-tension shooting situations • reducing the effects of • racing heart • sweaty palms • panic breathing et al. 41

  41. Basic endurance diagnosis – 2-4mmol/l test-retest 2-4mmol/l analysis– training effect 42

  42. Continuous & static intensity 2 mmol /l HR. 126 3 mmol/l HR. 152 20 min 20 min 43

  43. Continuous & shift speed (intensity) 3 mmol/l HR 2 mmol/l HR 20 min 5 min 44

  44. Endurance I HR.max:220-age 50%~65% Ex. Age:20 220-20=200 200X50%=100 200X65%=130 HR. zone : 100 ~ 130 min-1 Endurance II HR.max:220-age 65%~80% Ex. Age:20 220-20=200 200X65%=130 200X85%=160 HR. zone : 130 ~ 160 min-1 Cardio conditioning (Equation) 45

  45. Aerobic exercise • Continuous exercises • Jogging • cycling • swimming • walking • Aerobic dance • 20~50 min

  46. Strength Training

  47. Strength training for archer • Archery uses only muscles of upper body…. ? • The whole body is used in the archery shot. Or, your accuracy is going to suffer. • The muscles of legs and trunk provide a strong base for extensive standing during competitions. • Abs. and lower back muscles provide stability during the draw sequence. 48

  48. Strength training for archer • Muscle parts • Upper body muscles • Shoulder (middle & rear deltoid), trapezius, chest, upper back, arm (bi-, triceps) • Core & lower body muscles • abdominal and lower back(coremuscles) • gluteus, Quadriceps, hamstring, calf • Rotator cuff muscles • Deep muscles around shoulder joint • Keep stability of shoulder joint 49

  49. Rotator cuff strength training 1. 2. 3. 4.