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600 CE to 1450 CE

600 CE to 1450 CE. Rise of Islam Medieval Europe & Byzantines. Rise of Islam. Empire of common culture, cosmopolitan Qur’an Five Pillars, Ka’ba Mecca and Medina Split between Shia and Sunni, caliph. Umayyad Dynasty. Arabic becomes official govt language People converted to avoid a tax

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600 CE to 1450 CE

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  1. 600 CE to 1450 CE Rise of Islam Medieval Europe & Byzantines

  2. Rise of Islam • Empire of common culture, cosmopolitan • Qur’an • Five Pillars, Ka’ba • Mecca and Medina • Split between Shia and Sunni, caliph

  3. Umayyad Dynasty • Arabic becomes official govt language • People converted to avoid a tax • Attacked Constantinople, but failed • Advanced into Spain, 732 CE • Charles Martel (Frank) stopped their advance • Dome of the Rock is built • Split happens between Sunni & Shi’itecausing it’s demise

  4. Abbasid Dynasty • 750-1258 CE • mid 800s—Golden Age • Capital moves to Baghdad • Trade • Credit • Innovation—steel, medical, algebra, • Preserved Western knowledge • Tolerant of local customs

  5. Dar al’Islam

  6. Women in Islam • Traditional Arabian society • Women didn’t have property rights • Men kept dowry if divorced • Female infanticide • Qu’ran (651 CE) • Treated with more dignity • Return dowry if divorce • Equal before Allah • Infanticide was forbidden • Mohammad’s 1st wife was a successful business-women • Polygamy as long as treated equal • Testimony in court given ½ the weight • Veiled in public—Mesopotamia and Persia • Over time became more patriarchal

  7. Sufis • Islamic mystics • Effective missionaries • Personal relationship with Allah • Converted large #s of people to Islam

  8. Fall of Islamic Empire • Internal struggles and civil wars • Sunni and Shi’ite sects • succession • External problems • Persians, Europeans, Byzantines • Mongols 1258 CE • Fled to Egypt • Ottoman Turks reunite Egypt, Syria and Arabia and lasts till 1918

  9. Byzantine Empire • Constantinople • Highly centralized government • Orthodox—split with Rome • Justinian—Code & Hagia Sophia • Impacts Russia

  10. Note of Change: As the Empire Turns • Separate from Rome geographically

  11. C/c Religion & State in Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy • Secular in the East; religious in the West • Rome centralized religion—Latin • Orthodoxy—localized—local language • West—power stayed the Church • East—power in the State

  12. West—Medieval Europe • Viking and other nomadic raidsfeudalism • Code of chivalry • Primogeniture • Scholasticism • Crusades • Inquisition

  13. Rise of the Nation-State • William the Conqueror • Magna Carta • Isabella and Ferdinand

  14. C/C Ancient with Middle Ages • Agricultural surplusescities • Formed complicated institutions • Arts and sciences

  15. C/C Feudal Europe & Islam • Islamic traders traded with the world • European lords governed the manor • Baghdad became the center for learning • Europe very local and mainly religious education

  16. China • Tang dynasty got so big that it collapsed • Poetry • Civil service exam—bureaucracy • Song dynasty reunified • Practical encyclopedias and histories • Printing press • Civil service exam—bureaucracy • Transportation/canal networks for communication • Paper money and credit • Chinese junks • Fell to the Mongols—Yuan dynasty • Ming dynasty in 1368

  17. Chinese Women • Tang • Wu Zhao—1st Empress • Ruthless toward adversaries • Compassionate toward peasants Patriarchical—inferior, but with feminine virtues worth protecting Foot-binding

  18. Chinese Religion • Diverse during Han: Nestorians, Manicheans, Zorastrians, and Islam • Buddhism impacted the most • Appealed b/c of peace and meditation • Drain on the treasury b/c advocates end to earthly gain

  19. China Civil Service Exam • Stability b/c stayed in effect when dynasties changed • Leaders depended on the bureaucracy • Earned by strong performance • Meritocracy opposed to aristocracy • Similar to US b/c chg in President doesn’t change Congress

  20. Japan • Influenced by China and Korea • Yamato 1st ruling clan • Shinto • Buddhist missionaries • Modeled after Tang • Both held education in high esteem • Fujiwara—Feudal Japan

  21. C/C Europe & Japan • Similar political, social and honor code • Europe based on legal contract • Japan based on group identity

  22. India • Delhi Sultanate • Islam spread throughout N. India • Hindu temples were destroyed

  23. Rise and Fall of Mongols • Horseman, clan in-fighting kept them from uniting • Genghis Khan unified and invaded China • Separate hordes invaded Russia, middle east and India • Pax Mongolica • Continued exchange, but no major impact on culture and stifled some growth

  24. Mongols • Most became Muslim • Diffused culture • Didn’t mix with • Kept Russia from advancing as far as Europe • Brought the world together through trade

  25. Africa • Mansa Musa—Mali • Built Timbuktu • Pilgrimmage to Mecca • Oral literature

  26. Americas • Maya • Aztecs • Incas

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