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  1. Migration

  2. Concepts • The long term movement of people from one area to another • Movement out of an area is called emigration • movement inward is referred to as immigration

  3. Concepts • Host Country= receiving country. • Donor Country=source country. • migration balance is the difference between the number of emigrants and the number of immigrants

  4. Concepts • Net migration: the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants in a country • Push factor: things that make people leave an area • Pull factor: things that attract people to an area • Barriers to migration: anything that makes migration difficult or impossible

  5. Concept • Refugee: someone who leaves their country due to a well founded fear of persecution based on religion, politics etc. have been given refugee status in a host country • Asylum seeker: a person who applies for refugee status in a country to which they moved • Internally displaced person: someone who is forced to move within their own country due to persecution, conflict or internal disaster

  6. Types of migration • Forced Migration. • Unemployment e.g. Ireland to England and USA 1930s to 1980s and current times • Natural disasters e.g. famines, floods etc. • War e.g. troubles in the Middle east • Religious persecution e.g. Pilgrim fathers to America. • Political persecution e.g. apartheid in the old South Africa.

  7. Types of migration • Voluntary Migration. • Job prospects e.g. West of Ireland to the Dublin Region • Travel & Adventure e.g. Young Irish people going to Australia etc • Religious freedom e.g. Nigerian Christians in Ireland • Higher Living Standards e.g. better facilities in Cities • Climate e.g. Irish people on retiring moving to Spain etc

  8. Types of migration • Intra-national: West of Ireland to Dublin. • Urban depopulation: Inner city to suburbs. • Regional: Connemara to Galway City. • Returning migrants: Philippino nurses going home after 2 years. • Seasonal: Students to USA on J1 visas & tourists

  9. Effects of migration • Positive effects of Emigration on Donor country. • Safety valve reducing overpopulation – reduces pressure on natural resources (Ireland 1980’s) • Governments save on social welfare payments. • Remittances – second largest source of income in some countries – Mexico in 2006 worth 19b euro • Tourism

  10. Effects of migration • Negative effects of Emigration on Donor country. • Loss of young educated workforce i.e. brain drain e.g. Poland. • Slows economic develpment, education investment reduced, loss of tax and spending • Smaller home market. • Rural depopulation – an ageing population left behind resulting in fewer services. • Abandoned farms and farmhouses, farming practices stagnate, services close

  11. Effects of migration • Positive effects of Immigration on Host country. • Skills enrichment & labour shortages • Young educated workforce at no cost. • Renewed inward investment • Multi racial society • Greater diversity, tolerance & understanding • Economic contribution to government budget

  12. Effects of migration • Negative effects of Immigration on host country • Language Barrier • Discrimination & Exploitation • Lack of integration • Ghettoisation, racism & discrimination, shanty towns • Racism e.g. neo Nazism in Germany • Refugees • Overpopulation & Pressure on Resources • Housing, education & medical services • Xenophobia, stereotypes

  13. Ethnic Issues • Identity of a minority group, collective self-identity in larger population • Place of birth, language/religion • Ethnic Cleansing e.g.Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina

  14. Racial Issues • Race refers to Biological Inheritance, physical characteristics e.g skin colour • Social segregation: ghettos • Apartheid: South Africa • In 2006 ESRI survey 35% of imigrants had experienced harassment in public place • New National policy of Racism developed to help them integrate and be successfull and happy • France: race riots, 2005, carried out by youths of North African descent, following accidental death of 2 youth being chased by police in Clichy-sous-Bois suburb of Paris • Unemployment higher in migrants, issues over housing and lack of opportunities • Mass rioting affecting 274 towns for 2 weeks • Integration & discrimination, 200m euro in damage, 30b euro aid package

  15. Irish National Policy against Racism • Full Participation in all areas of life • Raising awareness • Provided for by the government • Included in all areas of economic & social life • Same laws & protection as everyone else

  16. Religous Issues • Muslim Indians, Pakistan, Plantations of Protestants, Northern Ireland • Irish educational system: trusteeship of catholic church • Equal status act 2000 • 60 muli-denominational Educate Together school • Ireland: integrated/melting pot approach • Britain: multicultural/salad bowl approach

  17. Migration in Europe • Migration from peripheral regions to core common • Migrants brought their families, high birth rates their numbers increased • low birth rate of the European core regions created a need for their labour • high oil prices led to a recession (1970s)= jobs lost, unemployment rose • 1990s=new wave of economic migrants from Eastern Europe (fall of the old Soviet Union and very low living standards)

  18. Ireland and Migration Patterns of Migration to Ireland • 1845 to 1849: Post Famine: • high emigration particularly from rural areas to US & UK (0ver 1,000,000) • Reduced Irish birth rates • Age and sex selective • The Irish Free State: 1922 • 1926: 10% employed in manufacturing • Protectionism • Emmigration 1950s: • Deep economic recession • 1961 population: 2.82m • 400,000 emigrated • Lacked skills & education • Rapid depopulation, social isolation • High dependency Ratio

  19. Economic Prosperity late 1960’s & 70’s • Taoiseach Sean Lemass • Programmes for economic expansion • Foreign investment & free trade • Outward migration declined • world economic boom • foreign investment led to jobs in the industrial sector eg. Pfisers • 1966: 300+ foreign companies • 1973: Ireland joined the EEC • Exports grew • living standards rose by 50% • Inmigration outweighed emigration • Between 1971-81 population increased by 15.6%

  20. Ireland and Migration Patterns of Migration to Ireland • Recession 1980s: • High unemployment rates • Economic Refugees • Government debt and a restructuring of the CAP=led to a sharp rise in emigration. • different as it was predominately highly-educated people (brain drain of 200,000) • Manufacturers closed down

  21. Celtic Tiger Era 1997-2007 • Net inward migration, highest in 2006 • EU & non EU skilled & unskilled workers • New wave of investment: high-tech MNC’s • Ireland: 1% of EU population, 20% of new inward investment in Europe • In 1996 net inmigration due to demand for labour: 1995-99 second highest rate of net inmigration in the world • 2002: applications for asylum seekers peaked – 11,634: dropped since the EU policy of “safe country of origin” • removal of the right of automatic residency for parents of Irish born children • Citizenship Referendum removed Irish born child's automatic right to citizenship when the parents are non- Irish nationals

  22. Current Recession • MNC’s shutting down • Young well educated workforce emigrate • Governemental debt 38.5b (2005) and 84b (2010) • Housing market collapse, living costs going up • 140,000 jobs lost since 2007 • Unemployment: 4.2% (2005), 14.3% (2011) • Inmigration decreased: tightened regulations • Net outward migration

  23. Ireland and Migration • From 2010-return to out-migration • 2010 net out migration was 34,500 (highest recorded since 1989) • 2009 figure was 65,100 - 18,400 were Irish Nationals • Included both Irish and non Irish nationals • Inmigration down from 83,800 – 57,300 • Net outmigration first time since 1995

  24. Migration policy in Ireland and the EU • Migrants from outside the EU have to apply for a work permit • Permits cater for high level skills (IT, science, biotechnology etc) crucial to the development of the economy • Attract companies with high valued jobs • Permit will only be issued if no suitable Irish national to fill the position

  25. Irish Migration Policy • 2007 – stricter laws • Focus on skills in short supply • Green card, work permit intra-company permit, spousal & dependent permits • Migrant & Irish workers – same rights • 5+ years permenent citizenship possible • Asylum seekers cn apply for refugee status • Irish born children of non nationals & their parents not automatic citizens

  26. Four categories of permits 1. The Green Card Scheme: • Available for occupants with salaries of over 60,000 euro • Jobs in communications, IT, healthcare, construction etc • Issued for two years • May lead to permanent or long- term residence • Card holders permitted to bring spouses and families

  27. Four categories of permits 2. The Work Permit: • For non-green card occupations in 30,000-60,000 annual salary range • Granted for two years • Can be extended for a further three years

  28. Four categories of permits 3. Intra-Company Transfer Permit: • For trans national senior managers, key personnel and trainees • Multinationals to transfer staff between branches on a temporary basis

  29. Four categories of permits 4. New spousal/ Dependant Work Permit: • Allows the spouse and dependents of employment permit holders to live in Ireland and apply for work permits

  30. Rights of migrant workers in Ireland • Same employments rights and protection • Resident in Ireland for at lest 2 years to be eligible of social welfare • Permits will not be issued for jobs paying below minimum wage • Become an Irish citizen after five years of legal residency

  31. Rights of asylum seekers/ refugees in Ireland • 2010: 260,730 people sought asylum in Europe (2,000 in Ireland) • Asylum seekers can arrive and apply for refugee status • 2005: 966 people granted refugee status in Ireland • Asylum seekers are not permitted to work, set up business or leave the state while application is being processed • Entitled to accommodation in specified centres across the country • Receive healthcare, education and welfare support • If refugee status is not granted, deportation is the next step • Once status granted the person has the same rights of any other national

  32. EU Migration Policy • Migration needed – labour shortages • Many countries are in stage 4 or 5 of Demographic Transition Model • 1995 Schengen Agreement – free movement between member states • EU common laws: share immigration between member states • They want to eliminate trafficking of migrants $8b worth anually • Prevent readmission of migrants refused in other country • 2000 3% miggrants worldwide, 63% in the North

  33. EU Migration Policy Why is there a need for a migration policy? • EU countries have different rules. For example Ireland and the UK has restricted access to those from Bulgaria and Romania • Some countries receive more migrants than others, ie. Italy and Spain have high in-migration from Albania and North Africa • Illegal trafficking of migrant into the EU is increasing

  34. EU Migration Policy Benefits of common migration policy • A common migration policy would help reduce illegal trafficking of vulnerable people from outside the EU • Help to support counties with high in migration ie. Spain and Italy • Processing applications for asylum quicker and easier • Common policy will make easier to obtain permits and residency

  35. EU Migration Policy Problems with a common policy • Creation of a ‘Fortress Europe’ – migrants unable to enter • Encouragement of an us and them mentality • Rights of genuine migrants might be restricted when faced with strict rigid rules • Countries might lose sovereignty if more power is handed over to EU

  36. Fortress Europe • Xenophobia is the hatred or fear of foreigners migration management: • Militarised its borders. • Created obstacles to migration and asylum. • Set target-driven deportation programmes. • Removed the problem of asylum by removing asylum seekers altogether.

  37. Rural – Urban migration 1900: 10% of world population in cities 2005: 50% 2075: 75% projected

  38. Impact of rural-urban migration Impact of rural to urban migration

  39. Case Study: Ireland • Impacts on the Rural area: • Rural depopulation: • Reduction in birth rates and marriage rates • Greying population • Imbalance in make to female ratio • Reduction of services: • Amalgamtion of schools, closure of services • Bitterness and resentment

  40. Case study: developed world,Dublin Reasons for growth (pull factors) • Centre of government, thousands of jobs • Main port, source of employment • Recent centre of financial services • Major centre of education

  41. Results of rural-urban migration 1. Urban Sprawl: • Dispersed city, growth at the edge of city • Not developed high rise like other EU cities • Expansion on edges and other towns greater distance away such as Gorey and Navan • Greater demand on houses result increase (car ownership increased) • House price Dublin 32% more expensive • Fuelled by in migration form those looking for work

  42. Results of rural-urban migration 2. Traffic Congestion: • Higher employment levels mean more commuters to and from Dublin • High house prices mean people travelling form outside the city • Under developed public transport system, better roads encourage people to drive • Creates congestion • Transport 21: funds transferred to NDP

  43. Results of rural-urban migration 3. Services under pressure in dormitory town close to Dublin • Swords, Leixslip and Balbriggan under increasing pressure on services from rapidly expanding population • Few services • Sense of community absent • Investment is required in education healthcare etc • Finding landfill sites is difficult (demand on houses)

  44. Solving problems of rural-urban migration 1. New towns on the edge of Dublin • 1960’s three new towns, Tallaght, Blanchardstown, Lucan-Clondalkin • Housing the over spill population • Adamstown 4 billion to construct (New Town) • Services are being put into place unlike towns of the 60’s • Retail, commercial and leisure services • 3 primary schools, 1 secondary school, crèches, fire station, 3 major public parks, rail station and bus corridor

  45. Solving problems of rural-urban migration 2. National Spatial Strategy (NSS): • Trying to balance dev. across Ireland to control growth in Dublin • Aims to allow people to live and work locally • Investing in towns with gateway and hub status • Receive more investment in jobs and services • Reduce need for housing in Dublin

  46. Solving problems of rural-urban migration 3. Investment in Transport infrastructure • NDP – National Development Plan • Transport 21 (2005-2010): plan to develop transport services across country • Investment to improve transport links to rural areas, encourage economic dev. • Reduce rural depopulation and provide more balanced economic dev. Of the country

  47. Solving problems of rural-urban migration 4. Use existing land in Dublin carefully: • All derelict, vacant and underused land in the city will be identified to allow for redevelopment for housing • Better use of existing housing (shops who have unused apartments above them) • ‘living over the shop scheme’: encourage more people to live in the city and not move to the suburbs

  48. Rural to Urban Migration: Developing world Development of mega cities 21, e.g. Mexico City Countryside overcrowded Services more easily available in cities Overurbanisation – shanty towns develop on cities outskirts 600m urban inhabitants in these areas Infant mortality high

  49. Case study: Sao Paulo • Mega city with a population of 20million + • Fourth most populous city in the world • Most of growth due to the rural to urban migration