counterculture n.
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  1. Counterculture And Other Protest Movements

  2. The Counterculture • AKA- “Hippies” • Origins in the social and political events of the 1950’s • The Beat Movement emphasized freedom from materialism and importance of personal experience • Civil Rights Movement introduced the idea of social and political protest and the anti-war movement • Movements challenged people to question traditional boundaries and cultural norms • Also heightened distrust of authority • Made up of “Baby Boomers”

  3. The Counterculture • Values: youth, spontaneity, and freedom of expression • Promoted peace, love, and freedom • Experimented with new styles of dress and music • Had freer attitudes toward sex and drugs

  4. Trinity of Counterculture • Sex, Drugs, and Rock n’ Roll • Music, art, movies, literature geared toward the youth reflected their sense of rebellion • Sexual Revolution- called for a separation from traditional family life • Communes- small communities where people shared common interests and resources

  5. Generation gap • Ideals and values were so different between parents and young people of the baby boom generation • Generation Gap- lack of understanding and communication between older and younger generations • One poll showed that majority of people over 30 opposed premarital sex; the majority of people under 29 did not

  6. Haight-Ashbury • District in San Francisco • Became a center of counterculture community • Speakers like Timothy Leary said that drugs could free the mind and encouraged young people to “tune in”, “turn on”, and “drop out” • Many counterculture members sought other forms of spiritual enlightenment • Buddhism and other Eastern religions

  7. Counterculture ends • Unfortunately, by the end of the 60’s many had become disillusioned by the excesses of the culture • Use of drugs lead to increased drug abuse  increased crime rates and increased deaths from overdose • Many famous musicians died from overdose (i.e.- Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin while only in their twenties) • Motives/values became increasingly shallow and self-centered • By the end of the decade most hippies had returned to mainstream society

  8. Women’s Rights Movement • 1960’s-70’s- The second wave of Feminism • Theory of political, economic, and social equality among men and women • Civil Rights Movement prompted women to look at the way they were judged and treated in society • Brought black and white women together- strengthening both causes • Number of working women grew during the 50’s and 60’s- women were looking for more and better opportunities

  9. Women’s rights movement • National Organization for Women (NOW) • Established by Betty Friedan (author of The Feminine Mystique) • Popularized the movement • Sought to pass the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) • Supposed to be passed in the early 20’s • Also sought to pass reproductive protection laws • Two types of feminists: • Those following the values of NOW- seeking political and legislative change • Radical Feminists- seeking to raise public awareness • Engaged in small, conscious-raising efforts and protests • i.e.- protesting Miss America Pageants, Playboy

  10. Women’s rights movement • Opposition came from men and women • Some women thought the movement was an assault on family, marriage, and children • Women like Phyllis Schlafly fought to keep the ERA from passing, fearing that it would compel women to fight in the military, end sex-segregated bathrooms, and hurt the family • Unfortunately the ERA fell short of passing and did not become a constitutional amendment

  11. Women’s rights movement • Lasting effects: • Expansion of women’s roles and opportunities • Gained new legal rights (i.e.- Title VII) • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission • Title IX- of the Higher Education Act of 1972 banned discrimination in education • Equal Credit Opportunity Act • 1973- Roe v. Wade

  12. Latino Rights Movement • Increased Latino population • Immigration restrictions of Europeans appeared after WWI • After WWII, growing demand for inexpensive labor (Braceros Program) • Decreased opportunities in Latin America • 1950’s- Latinos were being targeted for deportation, looking for migrants who were there illegally • 1965- Immigration and Nationality Act- eliminated national-origin quotas • By the 1970’s over 600,000 Mexican migrants came to the U.S.

  13. Latino Rights Movement • Latinos and other minorities had faced discrimination for a long time • Movement for change was inspired by the Civil Rights Movement • Demanded better working conditions, salaries, educational opportunities • Sought federal protection of their right to vote and campaigned to elect politicians who represented them and their interests

  14. Latino Rights Movement • Cesar Chavez- the most influential Latino activist • Fought for rights for farm workers • 1962- organized a farmworkers’ union in Delano, CA • Late 1960’s- merged with a Filipino farmworkers union which became the United Farm Workers (UFW) • He was committed to non-violence • Implemented many worker strikes and consumer boycotts •

  15. Latino Rights Movement • Chicano Movement • Broader social and political movement • Dedicated to increasing Latino awareness of their history and culture • Others focused on quality of life issues (reducing poverty and discrimination) • La RazaUnida • Political Party in Texas formed by Jose Angel Gutierrez • Organized for better housing and jobs • Successfully supported Latino political candidates

  16. Native American Rights • Youth took the lead in the movement for change for Native Americans • National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)- formed in 1961 to protect native fishing rights • Over time the group expanded to include broad civil rights for all Native Americans • 1968- American Indian Movement founded by Chippewa activists • Helped those living in urban ghettos • Addressed the rights of securing land, legal rights, and self-government for Native Americans

  17. Native American Rights • Dissatisfaction grew with the government and activists became more militant • 1969- a group occupied the island of Alcatraz (former site of a federal prison) and gained control of the land until 1971 • 1973- Siege and Wounded Knee • AIM organized and occupation of the village, demanding that the government reexamine the conditions of reservations • The standoff ended with two AIM members dead • The government did agree to reexamine the conditions • Indian Self Determination Act of 1975- gave tribes more control over resources and education on reservations

  18. Asian American Rights • Japanese American Citizens League- founded in 1929 worked for decades to receive compensation for property lost during the internment camps of WWII • Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments also provided aid to Asian immigrants

  19. Environmental Movement • Also inspired by the many civil rights movements • People began to realize that we were not only harming the environment, but people themselves • Coal smog, acid rain, poisonous human byproduct, DDT, nuclear waste = toxic waste • 1962- biologist Rachel Carson releases her book, Silent Spring • Her work convinced Congress to restrict the use of pesticides (specifically DDT) and spurred widespread environmental activism • Earth Day- enacted in 1970, April 22

  20. Environmental Movement • Nixon and Congress create the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 • Also signed environmental laws such as, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Endangered Species Act • President Ford continued in Nixon’s footsteps by creating the Nuclear Registry Commission in 1974

  21. Environmental Movement • After the 70’s many began to wonder if there were too many environmental restrictions • Companies began illegally dumping waste • Nuclear energy and oil spills created more problems • Some felt it was a violation of private property rights • Fear that too much regulation would inhibit jobs and businesses