Chapter 11 North and South Take Different Paths
Warm up(Briefly answer all 3 questions…we will discuss as a class.) Questions: 1. Before stores and factories, how did people get materials that they needed? 2. What daily household items would be the most difficult to make/build? 3. How have factories made life easier?
Answer: 1. Before stores and factories, how did people get materials that they needed? A: hand made, traded with neighbors 2. What daily household items would be the most difficult to make/build? A: clothes, furniture, dishes 3. How have factories made life easier? A: They mass produce items, cheaper, faster
The Industrial Revolution Section 1
What was the Industrial Revolution? The Industrial Revolution was a time when new inventions and new lifestyles ruled. These new inventions made factories much more important. Machines took the place of hand tools. Along with the new inventions came the increased desire for city life and factory jobs. Production and transportation became faster and easier too!
Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, people moved from working in homes and farms to working in mills and earning wages. This was brought on by new ways of working as well as new ways of producing goods.
The Industrial Revolution began in New England New Hampshire Vermont Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution Why New England? • The poor soil • The many rivers and streams • Geographical location (coal and iron) • Sea ports • Money
Saves time and money! New Technology In Great Britain, they developed… • Spinning jenny and the water frame • spun thread • Power loom wove the thread into cloth
Inventions The Spinning Jenny Powered Loom
Steam Power • Factories had to be built near a water source to operate, but during the dry season the machines didn’t have power. • To solve this problem a steam engine was designed to allow factories to be built anywhere. Sir Richard Arkwright
Lowell's Mills Francis Cabot Lowell • A wealthy man, who went to Great Britain brought factory systems to the United States • A factory system = bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency. They used mass production & interchangeable parts to increase production.
Lowell Girls • 80% of the workers in Lowell’s mills were young unmarried women between the ages of 15-30 • Conditions were poor: • Low wage • Long hours • Monotonous work
Interchangeable Parts Eli Whitney • Interchangeable parts were uniform parts made in large quantities that could replace any other identical pieces • Created interchangeable parts while trying to meet a manufacturing deadline. • Leads to mass production and reduction in cost.
Children In Factories • Prior to the Ind. Rev. kids worked on family farms. • Once factories were created, children worked many hours in the factories. • Kids as young as 7 worked in unsafe conditions and had no chance to go to school.
Factory Conditions • Factory conditions were horrible. • No fresh air • Dangerous machines • On the job injuries didn’t get compensated
Warm up: Question: Why were the Lowell Mills important to the American economy?
Answer: • Lowell Mills created a factory system. A factory system brought manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency. They used mass production & interchangeable parts to increase production.
Warm up: How did the creation of mills change small towns in New England?
Answer: Small towns started to grow around the mills. Citizens started to find jobs in the mills.
Section 2 The North Transformed
City Life • Huge population growth in the cities (urbanization) • People moved to the cities to get jobs in factories • Lead to problems like: • - Overcrowding • - Disease • - Pollution • - Risk of fire • - Lack of clean drinking water
City life was dirty and overcrowded What do you think the ditch in the center of the photo was used for?
Economy North: relied on industry and technology South: slavery and cotton was their foundation
Industry • North: • Many new inventions allowed the North to produce things efficiently • South: • Agriculture was profitable • Industry was of little use • There was only a small market for manufactured goods • “We want no manufactures; we desire no trading, no mechanical or manufacturing classes. As long as we have our rice, our sugar, our tobacco and our cotton, we can command wealth to purchase all we want.”
Communication • North: • Printing press invented • mass production of newspapers • The telegraph was invented (by: Samuel F.B. Morse) • Ran along railroads • Allowed quick communication • South: • due to the limited amount of railways • Less telegraph lines and worse communication than the North
Agriculture & Manufacturing • Important inventions: • Mechanized reaper (by: Cyrus McCormick) • Steel-tipped plow (by: John Deere) • The sewing machine (by: Howe & Singer)
Transportation • New water transportation • Steamboat (by: Robert Fulton) • Clipper ships • New land transportation • Railroads (Baltimore & Ohio R.R.) • North: all railroads interconnected • South: short, only connected small towns
A New Wave of Immigrants Who came and why? • The Great Hunger in Ireland (Over 1 million came to the U.S.) • German Revolutionaries (After failed revolutions many came to the U.S.) Nativists • Mostly American-born Protestants • They feared foreigners…especially Irish, Roman-Catholics • The Know-Nothing political party rose in NYC, policies against foreigners
African Americans in the North Distribution of slaves • African Americans • Faced discrimination in all areas of life • Low wages • No suffrage (right to vote) • No free public schools • Not allowed to work in factories or in skilled trades • Segregated schools, public facilities, and churches
Warm up: Question: What was difficult about living in the city in the 1800’s? Name 3 things.
Answer: Problems for people living in the cities: - Overcrowding - Disease - Pollution - Risk of fire - Lack of clean drinking water
Section 3 The Plantation South
Agriculture Expansion As the North became more urban and industrialized the South remained rural… 1. Textile boom…created a huge demand for cotton 2. Invention of the cotton gin…produced more cotton • Plenty of fertile land • Slaves • Cotton Gin • High demand for • products (North)
Oliver Evans Eli Whitney New Technology In the United States…
New Technology In the United States… Oliver Evans Eli Whitney • Mechanical flour mill Only needed two people to run it. • (one to empty the bag of wheat and one to roll away the barrels of flour) • Now 1 = 50! • Cotton Gin a simple machine that quickly removed the cotton seed from the fiber.
The Cotton Gin Cheaper to clean makes it possible to make money off of it!!!
Farms vs. Plantations • Plantations (1,000 acres) • Domestic slaves • Field workers • Plantation owners • Goal: to earn profit • Plantation wives • Supervised buildings and kept records Farms (50-200 acres) • Tenant farmers • Rented land to farm • Owned by Yeomen (men who did not own slaves) • Largest group of white men in the south
Slavery developed in the South because of the need for cheap labor. Cotton picking in Mississippi
The Life of a Slave European slave traders in Africa did not seize land from natives and colonize the coast, as they did in their New World settlements. Instead, they established special relationships with local chieftains, who allowed them to maintain trading forts along the coast. Local Africans, rather than the Europeans themselves, acquired and supplied slaves to the white traders.
African tribes would win wars and sell the captives of the losing tribe into slavery. The first slaves were brought to America in 1619 and typically they had a master for seven years before they were free. However, farmers soon needed slaves for large plantations so they started to buy them for life.
The Life of a Slave Slaves were crowded on to ships and brought over to America on Triangle Trade routes.
SLAVERY • 1 out of 4 families in the South owned slaves • 1 out of 7 families owned 10 or more Family Families were often separated by sales. Work Slaves worked from sun up to sun down. • Kids: carried water and easy chores • Elders: cared for young and did light chores • Everyone else: fields
Living Conditions HOMESfor slaves were called slave cabins -Mud floors -About 12 to a room -Very dirty
Life as a Slave Slave Auction: slaves were bought and sold MARRIAGE:“until death or distance do you part” CULTURE: large families, clothing, songs, dance
Life as a Slave PROTESTING: Worked slowly, faked illness, burned buildings, broke tools, made animals lame, escaped (ALL resulted in punishment )
Additional African American Issues • Free African Americans- they faced many problems and were denied basic rights. • Slave Codes- laws that controlled every aspect of an enslaved person’s life. • Resistance to slavery- Nat Turner led a revolt in 1831. About 60 whites were killed in the revolt.