Qualitative Research Qualitative research relies on the collection of data in the form of spoken or written text or images using open-ended questions, observation, or “found” data
Goals of Qualitative Research • Gain preliminary insight into research problems • Probe more deeply into areas that quantitative research is too superficial to access – i.e. subconscious processes • Provide initial ideas about specific problems, theories, relationships, variables, and scale design
Quantitative Research Quantitative researchuses formal standard questions and predetermined response options in questionnaires or surveys administered to large numbers of respondents.
Goals of Quantitative Research • Make accurate predictions about consumer behaviors • Validate relationships suggested by qualitative research and test hypotheses in statistically sound ways • Derive mathematical models that describe consumer behaviors and marketing phenomena
Quantitative Validation of facts, estimates, predications, relationships Descriptive and causal designs Mostly structured Good representation of target populations – big samples Statistical, descriptive, causal predictions, relationships analyses possible More objective analysis method Qualitative Discovery of ideas, feelings, preliminary insights and understanding of ideas Exploratory designs only Open-ended, semi-structured or unstructured Small samples, limited generalizability More subjective content analysis Quantitative vs Qualitative
Focus groups In-depth interviews “Hybrids” Ethnography – “Deep Dives” Netnography Case Studies Observation Methods – manual & mechanical Primary Qualitative Methods
In-depth Interview An in-depth interview is a formal interview process in which a well-trained interviewer asks subjects a set of semi-structured questions in face-to-face setting
Objectives of IDI • Discover what subjects think about a topic and why • Understand subjects’ feelings, beliefs, opinions and why they exist • Encourage subject to communicate as much detail as possible • Generate new research ideas
Focus Groups A focus group is a formal process that brings a small group of people together for an interactive, spontaneous discussion.
Focus Group Characteristics • 8-12 participants plus moderator • Session lasts 1– 2 hours • Respondents paid $50-$200 • Typically held at FG facility • Participants pre-screened • Overall cost $2000-5000+ per group
Objectives of Focus Groups • Identify data for defining and redefining research needs • Reveal consumers’ hidden attitudes • Generate new ideas for products, market opportunities and marketing strategy • Discover new constructs and measurement methods • Explain changing consumer preferences • Help develop advertising / promotion ideas
The Focus Group Process Phase 1: Planning the study Phase 2: Conducting the discussions Phase 3: Analyzing and reporting the results
FG Phase 1 Decisions • Participants • Who should be included? • How many groups should be held? • How will participants be recruited and screened ? • Size • Location
FG Phase 2 Components • Select a moderator and prepare guide • Begin the session with “ice-breaker” • Introduce the first topic and continue • Close the session
FG Phase 2 Guidance • Be nice, fun and accommodating • Offer snacks • Communicate ground rules • Prevent monopolization and groupthink • Solicit a reasonable amount of dissent and disagreement • Let conversation evolve naturally • Expect to forego some questions
FG Phase 3 Activities • Conduct a debriefing analysis • Transcribe discussions • Content analyze responses • Develop report • Decide next steps
Ethnography Ethnography is a form of qualitative data collection that records behavior in natural settings to understand how social and cultural influences affect individual behaviors and experiences
Forms of Ethnographic Research Participating observation Non-participating observation
Netnography Netnography is an ethnographic research technique that studies “found data” (consumer generated) on the internet produced by virtual communities.
Case Studies The case study technique involves thoroughly investigating one or more consumers (or consumer groups) of interest.
Projective Techniques • Word Association Tests • Thought Completion Tests • Thematic Apperception Test • ZaltmanMetaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) • Q-Sort
Word Association • Which words come to mind when I say: • Ice Cream • Adidas • Desk • Education • Apple • Party • Cosmetics
Sentence Completion • A person who wears Tommy Hilfilger shirts is _____. • When I think of Delta Airlines, I ______________.
Cartoon Completion Let’s get some clothes from Macy’s! MACY’S
Thematic Apperception Test • Write a story about this image.
ZMET Technique • Create a collage that expresses your feelings and opinions about…
Mechanical Observation Observation is the systematic witnessing and recording of behavioral patterns of objects, people, and events without directly communicating with them
Benefits Accuracy of recording actual behavior Well-controlled experimental environments Provides detailed behavioral data Limitations Difficult to generalize findings Cannot explain behaviors ( i.e. the “why?”) Problems in setting up and recording behaviors Ethical issues Benefits and Limitations of Observation