WORKSHOP SECTIONS: CONTENT CITATION CAREFUL ATTENTION TO DETAIL
THE CONTENT 1. Pre-write 2. Thesis statement & Outline 3. Topic sentences 4. Organization 5. Support 6. Introduction 7. Conclusion
Pre-Write: Table of Contents • Prompt selection • Prompt analysis • Brainstorm • Research
Pre-write • those who have selected their prompt and brainstormed for ideas can move on to “The Thesis” slide.
Pre-write: selection • Read through the prompts and select the one about which you feel most comfortable and knowledgeable. • This selection might change as you plan out your response.
Pre-write: prompt analysis • Analyze the question. Some prompts will ask you to state a viewpoint, some will ask you to discuss/explain (decide which). • Are all parts of the prompt understandable? What information would you need to include? • Look at the key terms and guiding questions. • Ask for clarification from instructor if necessary
Pre-write: brainstorm part 1 • Prompt #4: Identify the main threats to American security during the Cold War (possible answers could include espionage, nuclear war, expansion of communism, falling behind in the arms race) • Topic: threats to US security during Cold War • Select 3-4 big concepts: espionage, nuclear war, communism, arms race
Pre-write: brainstorm part 2 • For each concept, write down the definition and how it was a threat. (for other prompts, write how the concept proves or is related to the topic) • Research for better definition and ideas
Research • Textbook and other books • Online resources - use variety of search words (e.g., US and Soviet Union dislike; difference; distrust; mistrust; suspicion) -> use synonyms - make sure the source is reliable (is it just a blogger? An organization? Does it cite sources?)
#1 THE THESIS
Thesis definition Thesis Statement= What you plan to argue + How you plan to argue it Bad example: -> doesn’t include a specific topic -> doesn’t include a plan of argument
Thesis statement • If your prompt asks for a viewpoint: agree, disagree, or quantify • If your prompt asks for an analysis: Identify and consider most important ideas. Then discuss what happens in a specific event and why it is significant.
If your prompt asks to discuss: Summarize the overall content of your topic. Then pick out 1 or 2 points and say what you think about it. You can say the pro and con about the items involved.
THE CONTENT The following are characteristics of a thesis. Is it : CLEAR ARGUABLE APPROPRIATELY QUALIFIED
THE CONTENTThe following examples show a thesis sentence that is not clear and one that is clear. INCOMPLETE THESISCOMPLETE THESIS It decreases one’s ability to perform Smoking decreases one’s ability to quality work in the workplace. perform quality work in the workplace. This is not a thesis statement because This is a thesis statement because the it is not clear. What does the work “it” topic is clear: smoking. mean?
INCOMPLETE THESIS SMOKING IS DANGEROUS TO A PERSON’S HEALTH. This is not a thesis statement because it is not arguable. COMPLETE THESIS SMOKING DECREASES ONE’S ABILITY TO PERFORM QUALITY WORK AT THE WORKPLACE. This is a thesis statement because it is arguable. THE CONTENTThe following examples show a thesis statement that is not arguable and one that is arguable:
THE CONTENTThe following examples show a thesis statement that is not appropriately qualified and one that is appropriately qualified INCOMPLETE THESISCOMPLETE THESIS Everyone knows that smoking Researchers maintain smoking decreases one’s ability to perform decreases one’s ability to quality work in the workplace. perform quality work in the workplace. This is not a thesis statementbecauseThis is a thesis statement because it is not appropriately qualified.“Everyone”“[r]esearchers maintain” is appropriately Is too vague. qualified. “Researchers” is a specific topic.
Thesis check • Exchange your thesis with a peer. • Check their thesis: - includes an opinion/argument about the prompt? -includes a plan on how they will argue? -all meanings clear? - nothing vague?
Outline • Check if you have enough information to fit in the outline ->
#2 CLAIM SENTENCES
Claim sentence • Each claim sentence shows the relationship of the individual paragraph to the thesis.
THE CONTENT #2.Most paragraphs require claim sentences. They include two parts: PART ONE: The paper topic PART TWO: The particular paragraph’s relationship to the research question Example: Thesis:Smokingdecreases one’s ability to perform quality work in the workplace. Claim Sentence: Smokingdecreases work efficiencysince smokers require more breaks. paper topicrelationship to the research question:
THE CONTENT ACTIVITY: CLAIM SENTENCES 1. For each of your claim sentence, underline the topic red and underline the relevance, or the part that explains how it is related to the thesis blue. 2. Revise all claim sentences that do not clearly identify the topic and/or do not show a clear relationship to the research question.
THE CONTENT #3. ORGANIZATION You must organize your paper for a logical movement among paragraphs.
THE CONTENT THESIS: SMOKING DECREASES ONE’S ABILITY TO PERFORM QUALITY WORK AT THE WORKPLACE. Example: Below are four claim sentences that do not yet show a logical movement among them: Smoking decreases work efficiency since smokers require more breaks. Smoking decreases work efficiency because smokers tend to have a shorter lifespan. Smoking decreases work efficiency among co-workersbecause of second-hand smoke. Smoking decreases the company’s economic efficiency because of lost time on the job. Note: In your early writing, consider using the formulaic style shown above to help with organization; in your revision, revise your topic sentences for voice and variety. Please see the next slide for ways in which you can improve/revise.
THE CONTENTSteps to improve logical movement in your paper:1. Write down the claim sentences, working from the least important to the most important. Original cliam sentences: Smoking decreases work efficiency since smokers require more breaks. Smoking decreases work efficiency because of lost time on the job. Smoking decreases work efficiency among co-workersbecause of second-hand smoke. Smoking decreases the company’s economic efficiency due to increased retraining costs. Revised order: Smoking decreases work efficiency since smokers require more breaks. Smoking decreases work efficiency among co-workersbecause of second-hand smoke. Smoking decreases the company’s economic efficiency due to lost time on the job. Smoking decreases work efficiency because smokers tend to have a shorter lifespan. The first two claim sentences show lost time on the job The third claim sentence shows the economic consequences of time lost. The fourth cliam sentence shows the ultimate price paid because of smoking. . .
THE CONTENT#2 and #3 organizational stepscont. #2. We use transition words to help the logical movement among paragraphs (however, also, although, since, because, likewise, additionally, before, etc…). #3. Work with the claim sentences so they better reflect your own voice and style. PLEASE SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR EXAMPLES:
THE CONTENT#2 and #3 organizational steps EXAMPLES: ORIGINAL CLAIM SENTENCES; Smoking decreases work efficiency since smokers require more breaks. Smoking decreases work efficiency among co-workersbecause of second-hand smoke. Smoking decreases the company’s economic efficiency due to lost time on the job. Smoking decreases work efficiency because smokers tend to have a shorter lifespan. REVISED CLAIM SENTENCES (transitions are in blue). First, smoking decreases work efficiency since smokers require more breaks. Because designated smoking areas are sometimes frequented by coworkers, employees can suffer the effects of second-hand smoke, thus decreasing their work efficiency. As a result of lost time on the job, companies lose money. Most importantly, smokers lose valuable years on the job because of a shortened lifespan. Notice: The revised claim sentences are less formulaic with a variety of sentences in a more personable voice.
THE CONTENT Activity #3 • Write down all claim sentences in your body paragraphs. • Number them starting with the least important point and ending with the most important point. • Circle transitions in your claim sentences; if the paragraph does not yet have one, add accordingly. • Work with your claim sentences to make them less formulaic. • Make sure each claim sentence shows clear relationship with the thesis. Note: If you have any questions, please visit your instructor.
THE CONTENT #4: The support for each claim sentence helps develop the paragraph. All information relates to the main idea. Using research and personal experiences in our paragraphs strengthens our writing.
THE CONTENT Also, • Make sure to develop paragraphs with paraphrases, summaries, analysis, and detailed examples. Limit the number of sources used in paragraphs to between one and three. • Talk about the sources; explain how they develop the topic. • Limit quotes to only those that are absolutely necessary. Less is best is a good rule to follow with quotes. • Avoid stringing along quotes; this hinders voice and analysis.
THE CONTENT Activity #4 Carefully look at each sentence in each paragraph. If you see a sentence in a paragraph that does not relate to the topic sentence, remove it, and develop that point elsewhere.
THE CONTENT #5. The introduction is an important part of your essay. It hooks the reader, and it announces the main idea of the essay.
THE CONTENT ACTIVITY #5 Look at the introduction of your paper. Circle your hook. Remember, this can be either an anecdote, statistic, question, or quote. Explain how you think this type of hook will draw in your reader. NOTE: If you need help with your hook/lead, please refer to the Leads workshop Next, circle your thesis.
#6 THE CONCLUSION
THE CONTENT #6. The conclusion is also an important part of your essay. It reminds the reader of the thesis statement, and it holds the final thoughts of the essay. Develop it to encourage your reader to continue thinking about your topic. NOTE: Remember, though, a conclusion should never have a new idea or source.
THE CONTENT Activity 6: Look at your conclusion. Does it remind the reader of your topic? Circle the part that refers back to the thesis. Also, consider how the essay ends. Explain the choices you have made in your conclusion. Do you have a new idea introduced in the conclusion? If so, consider moving it to an earlier paragraph.
THE CITATION 7. Evaluate Sources 8. Parenthetical citation 9. Works Cited 10. Number of Sources
#7 EVALUATING SOURCES
THE CITATION #7. Evaluating Sources is one of the most important part of your research process. A writer must consider the authority and value of each source (interview, database article, book, film, etc. . .) . Strong source materials help the reader trust the research. It’s your responsibility to make sure all of your sources are credible. NOTE: PLEASE REFER TO THE EVALUATING SOURCES GPAW WORKSHOP FOR REVIEW.
THE CITATION When considering a source for your paper, be sure you know who wrote it. Many times this information helps us determine if the source is credible (or not), if the writer has done her own research (or not), and if we can rely on this information for our own papers (or not). Consider: Name? Degree? Expertise? Contact information? Other contributions to topic/field?
THE CITATIONHere are some things to note when considering sources: Along with authorship, consider: • When was it published? • Is there any biased language? • Are the references listed? • Are there any grammatical errors or misspelled words? • Is it a scholarly source or not? • Is it from a .net or .com? Again: Refer to Evaluating Sources GPAW for help
THE CITATIONPRINT THIS SLIDE FOR ACTIVITY # 7FILL IN EACH BOX WITH INFORMATION FROM ONE OF YOUR SOURCES.
THE CITATION Remember, if you think that a source might not be reliable, do two things: • Please see your instructor for clarity. • Do not be afraid to set that source aside, and find a more reliable one.
#8 PARENTHETICIAL CITATION
THE CITATION #8: Parenthetical citation helps the reader easily distinguish between source materials and the writer’s voice. Some citation styles include MLA, APA, and Chicago Style. You will use MLA for your essays. See pages 604-631 for reference. Note: In your other classes, your instructor will explain which citation style he or she wants you to use. Your textbook will give examples and explanations.