Have you been outside the U.S.? As you enter, write the names of any countries you have visited or lived in on the board. Use a tally mark if someone has already written it. Today: Values Norms Concrete Culture-Share artifacts Language About Test 1 Culture “When a person is down in the world, an ounce of help is better than a pound of preaching.”- Edward G. Bulwer-Lytton (Novelist, Playwright, Politician)
In 2009, Congress designated September 11th National Day of Service and Remembrance www.Serve.gov–details on ways you can pay tribute through serving your community www.firehero.org-National Fallen Firefighters Foundation, non-profit to honor fallen fire heroes and assist their families and coworkers.
Extra Credit Pop Quiz Answers • The article Cultural Relativism discusses: • An American who learns to stop judging headhunters in the Philippines in the 1960’s after seeing their reaction to the draft in the U.S. military. • b. Profiling outcast individuals in different societies such as rat catchers in India, leprosy sufferers in Nepal, and scavengers in Australia. • c. Rituals that mark the passage from one phase of life to another including a young girl tattooing her face before marriage in Papua New Guinea. • d. Ideals of beauty in complexion and physique in women of cultures around the world.
Extra Credit Pop Quiz Answers 2. Chapter 1 of your text uses all three sociological perspectives (structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism) to analyze __________ in society a. Racism b. Drug addiction c. High school dropouts d. Prostitution
Extra Credit Pop Quiz Answers 3. Chapter 1 of your text describes careers in Sociology. One example provided of a notable American with a bachelor’s degree in sociology is: a. First Lady Michelle Obama b. Presidential candidate Mitt Romney c. President Barack Obama d. Vice President Joe Biden
Culture Total way of life shared by members of a community bound together by a common: -history -geographic location -language -economic level -religion
6 Characteristic’s of Culture • Islearned • Is taken for granted (“the last thing a fish would notice is water”) • Is symbolic (the significance lies in the meaning it holds for people) • Isconstantly changing and shaped by political, social, and economic conditions. • Effects how we perceive and evaluate the world around us
What culture is NOTThink of a typical “multicultural day” • Artifacts or material used by a people • Biological traits such as race • Food, music, holidays, etc. • Higher class status derived from a knowledge of the arts, manners, literature, etc.
Values: shared beliefs about what is important • Guidelines for behavior • Define what is important within society ex: respect for elders • Ideas of what people should give importance to What do you we value in the United States?
Values in the U.S. Sociologist Robin Williams (1965) identified the following as underlying core values shared my many in U.S. society: • Achievement and success • Individualism • Activity/Work • Efficiency and practicality • Science and technology • Material comfort • Love • Education • Freedom Do we have the same values now?
Value Contradictions. Do some of these values contradict each other? How so? • Progress • Humanitarianism • Equality • Safety • Healthy Lifestyles • Concern for the Environment • Freedom • Self-fulfillment • Achievement and success • Individualism • Activity/Work • Efficiency and practicality • Science and technology • Material comfort • Love • Education • Religion Example: Efficiency and healthy lifestyles
Ideal culture vs. Real culture Do we really value safety for children?
Ideal culture vs. Real culture 1. Groups of 1-4. Pick one value. 2. What are 2 ways we do value this? 3. What are 2 ways we do not? Progress Humanitarianism Freedom Equality Love Education Safety for children Healthy lifestyles Concern for the environment
Value contradictions: two different values that can contradict each other Example: material comfort can contradict concern for the environment (car instead of biking/walking) Ideal Culture vs Real Culture: one value that a society feels is important but may not really value Example: education (free public education for K-12, but also lots of budget cuts)
Ethnocentrism Using your own group’s ways of doing things as a measure of what is normal, and possibly as a measure to judge others against National Geographic-Roper Survey of Geographic Literacy Asked Americans ages 18-24 which is the world’s most spoken language? Mandarin Russian English Arabic
Ethnocentrism Has positive and negative aspects
Culture shock Disorientation that occurs when entering an unfamiliar culture.
Have you had experiences with culture shock? food, driving, shopping, gym, restrooms?
Norms: shared rules of conduct • Outline what is acceptable, appropriate • Guide behavior • Based on values Value: respect for elders Norm: give up your seat on the bus if there is someone elderly standing
How do we learn norms? Sanctions: reactions people get for breaking or following norms
3 Types of Norms: Folkways, Mores (more-ays), Taboo
3 Types of Norms: Folkways, Mores (more-ays), Taboo Being faithful to husband/ wife Husband and wife live in the same home -Open marriages -Multiple wives/husbands
3 Types of Norms: Folkways, Mores (more-ays), Taboo Mom and Dad sleep in one room, children in another Parents provide children with a safe place to sleep Dad and teenage daughter sleeping in the same bed
3 types of norms Mark didn’t bring a gift to his friend’s birthday party. Mark violated a ___________________________ Mark exchanged his daughter’s hand in marriage for money. In the United States he has violated a _______________________________. Mark was hitting his dog badly at the park . Mark has violated a _______ folkway taboo mos
Culture Non-material culture Material culture
Assignment 3. Share your cultural artifact. Tell us: • your name • what you brought • what meaning it has for you 2. As people are sharing, record which category of culture you think each item falls under: • Race/ethnicity/nationality • Language • Gender • Socio-economic status • Age • Sports • Religion • Political ideology • Interests/hobbies • Experiences • Family
Subcultures and counter cultures Culture of society as a whole Subculture: • Culture within larger culture • Has some own values, customs etc, • Shares many values of the larger culture Ex: Youth culture, DJ’s, surfers, doctors subculture • Counter culture: • Holds values that stand in opposition to those of the dominant culture Ex: Swingers, gangs, mafia Counter culture
Freeganism and dumpster diving View Info More details
Quick Write: Do you think Freeganismis a subcultureor counter culture? Why? What are their values? What types of norms might they follow? Subculture: • Culture within larger culture • Has some own values, customs etc, • Shares many values of the parent culture Counter culture: • Holds values that stand in opposition to those of the dominant culture
Cultural relativism Examining cultures without judging its elements as superior or inferior to ones own way of life Is cultural relativism a good thing? Can it be a bad thing?
Language Defined: • Set of symbols that expresses ideas and allows people to think and communicate
Language Guides perceptions There are words that exist in certain languages that do not have a an equivalent in others Examples: • girlfriend/boyfriend doesn’t exist in Urdu • Kuya/Ate (older brother/sister in Tagalog) • Ta’arof- Farsi term referring to etiquette, politeness, cultural obligations doesn’t exist in English
Culture and Language What we say influences what we think what we feel and what we believe What think feel and believe influences what we say
Culture and Language • Humans learn and transmit our culture through language
Language Moribund (endangered language) • Moribund = spoken only by a few older people and unknown to children • Many world languages will be extinct or moribund within the next 100 years • An entire way of thinking is lost each time a language becomes extinct
Endangered Languages • View National Geographic Map of endangered languages • View Enduring Voices Project
Language The Summer Institute for Linguistics (SIL) Ethnologue Survey (2009) lists the following as the top languages by population:(number of native speakers in parentheses) Mandarin Chinese (937,132,000) Spanish (332,000,000) English (322,000,000) Bengali (189,000,000) Hindi/Urdu (182,000,000) Arabic (174,950,000) Portuguese (170,000,000) Russian (170,000,000) Japanese (125,000,000) German (98,000,000) French(79,572,000)
What do these proverbs tell you about what the culture values? Maori Proverb (New Zealand) “E moa i tangata ringa raupa.” “Marry a man with blistered hands.”
Mexican Proverb “Anda tu camino sin ayuda de vecino.” “Walk your own road without the help of a neighbor.”
Nigerian Proverb "When the brothers fight to the death, a stranger inherits their father's estate.”
To do • Test 1 Coming Up Monday SEP 17 • Be on time-class continues after the quiz • Bring a standard 50 question scantron E-882 and pencil • Multiple choice, 15 questions • Study class notes, ppt slides on website, and text reading • Study guide posted on website
Summary • View How Beliefs and Values Define a Culture