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alcohol

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alcohol

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  1. alcohol

  2. Hydroxyl groups Alcohols • Alcohols: • hydrocarbon derivatives in which one or more of the H atoms has been replaced by a hydroxyl group (alcohol functional group) C - O - H OR C - OH

  3. Alcohols • Alcohols are named in the exact same manner as alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes except: • To find the base name, drop the “e” from the name of the corresponding alkane and add “ol” • Use the carbon number to identify the position of the alcohol. CH3CH2CHCH3 OH CH3CH2CH2OH 1-propanol 2-butanol

  4. Alcohols • The position of the alcohol in the chain has a significant impact on the reactivity of the alcohol. • A primary alcohol (1o) is an alcohol in which the OH group is attached to a carbon which is bonded to only 1 other C atom. • CH3CH2OH

  5. Alcohols • A secondary alcohol (2o) is an alcohol in which the OH group is attached to a carbon which is bonded to two other carbon atoms. • CH3CHCH3 OH • CH3CH2CHCH2CH3 OH

  6. Alcohols • A tertiary alcohol (3o) is an alcohol in which the OH group is attached to a C which is bonded to three other carbon atoms. CH3 CH2CH3 CH3CCH3 CH3CH2CCH3 OH OH

  7. Naming Alcohols • A carbon compound that contain -OH (hydroxyl) group • In IUPAC name, the -e in alkane name is replaced with -ol. CH4 methane CH3OH methanol (methyl alcohol) CH3CH3 ethane CH3CH2OH ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

  8. More Names of Alcohols • IUPAC names for longer chains number the chain from the end nearest the -OH group. CH3CH2CH2OH propan-1-ol OH CH3CHCH3propan-2-ol CH3 OH CH3CHCH2CH2CHCH35-methylhexan-2-ol

  9. Some Typical Alcohols OH “rubbing alcohol” CH3CHCH3 propan-2-ol (isopropyl alcohol) antifreeze HO-CH2-CH2-OH ethane-1,2-diol (ethylene glycol) OH glycerol HO-CH2-CH-CH2OH propane-1,2,3-triol Anti-freeze

  10. O H Phenol Phenols • IUPAC name for benzene with a hydroxyl group • Many are used as antiseptics and disinfectants

  11. Ethers • Contain an -O- between two carbon groups • Ethers are named by adding the suffix oxy to the shorter chain and attaching it to the longer chain’s alkane name. CH3-O-CH3 methoxymethane CH3-O-CH2CH3 methoxyethane

  12. Thiols • Many thiols have disagreeable odors • Used to detect gas leak • Found in onions, oysters, garlic and oysters Onions CH3CH2CH2-SH 1-propanethiol Garlic CH2=CHCH2-SH 2-propene-1-thiol Skunk spray CH3 trans-2-butene-1-thiol CH = CH CH2SH LecturePLUS Timberlake