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  1. Public Opinion Chapter 11

  2. What is the most common use of campaigning during elections? • Canvassing • Mail • Magazine & Newspaper Ads • TV

  3. Public Opinion • The ideas & attitudes people have about candidates • Influenced by age, gender, income, hobbies, race, religion & occupation • Mass media is a strong influence • Politicians must be responsive to public opinion if they are going to get reelected

  4. How does a person contribute to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund? • By paying the sales tax • Checking a box on their income tax forms • Ordinary people can not contribute • Only by contributing to PAC’s

  5. Determining Public Opinion • Public Opinion Polls – survey – most accurate way to determine public opinion • Pollsters – people trained to take polls & measure public opinion • Public Opinion Poll – use random samples • Push Polls – used to push public opinion one way or another • Have loaded questions – biased to get a certain response • Presidential Approval Rating • Gallup Poll

  6. What is a split ticket? • Ballots with candidates listed on two sides • Using different ballots for national and state issues • Voting for candidates from different political parties • Voting for candidates from the same political party

  7. Which President had the worst approval rating? • Harry Truman • Franklin D. Roosevelt • Richard Nixon • George Bush

  8. Presidential Approval Ratings

  9. Media • Print – newspapers, mailings, magazines • Electronic – TV, radio, internet • Main purpose – to keep us informed • Independent media is most desirable • Literacy is important • Bias – one-sided point of view

  10. Biased Media Fox – Republican biased news MSNBC – Democratic biased news

  11. A disadvantage of mass campaigning is: Its too time consuming It takes too many people Its too expensive It doesn’t reach enough people

  12. Interest Groups • People attempting to influence government with their shared views • Pressure groups • Functions: • Bring issues to the public & lawmakers • Support candidates who favor their goals

  13. All of the following are reasons a person should volunteer except: The community benefits A person can deduct it on their tax return It pays well It gives a person intrinsic value

  14. Types of Interest Groups • Economic – most common • Business organizations – interested in trade • Industrial & Trade – represent certain types of business • Labor Unions – rights of workers • Professional Associations – represent different professions • Group • Ethnicity (NAACP) • Age (AARP) • Gender (NOW) • Public – focus on specific causes (PETA) • Can form PACs also

  15. All of the following are duties except: Attending school Paying taxes Voting in elections Serving on a jury

  16. Ways Special Interest Groups Influence Politics • Election Activities – backing a candidate • Lobbying – persuading officials • Provide expert testimony or help write laws in committees • Go to court to fight a cause • Fund elections

  17. What is publishing false information that harms a person’s reputation? • Propaganda • Censorship • Libel • Slander

  18. Lobbyists • Lobby – try to get officials to support a group’s goals • Responsible for getting PAC money to the right politicians • Speak in congressional committees

  19. Which of the following can cause a voters registration to be canceled? Convicted of a felony Move out of the state Nothing cancels voter registration Both A and B are correct

  20. Regulation • Lobbyists can’t pay a candidates living expenses • Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act (1946) • All lobbies must register with federal & state governments & report all expenditures

  21. A lobbyist can do all of the following except: • Pay a member of congress to vote for a bill • Prepare a report on a bill • Research information about a bill • Testify about a bill

  22. Propaganda • Attempt to influence people with biased information • Always get both sides of a story from reliable sources • Good way to determine what a candidate really supports is to see which PAC gives them money for campaigning

  23. To learn about public opinion, pollsters usually question: Americans from one particular economic group Fewer than 100 people A random sample of people People with very strong opinions

  24. Types of Propaganda • Endorsements – famous or admirable person supports a candidate • Stacked Cards – presenting only 1 side of the issue – distorting the facts • Name-Calling – turning people against an opponent by giving them an unpleasant label or description • Glittering Generality – statement that sounds good but is meaningless • Symbols – use and misuse of symbols • Just Plain Folks – make people think that the candidate is just like them • Bandwagon – convincing people that everyone else agrees with a certain candidate • Examples

  25. Which one of the following is a branch of the AFL-CIO Union? • American Medical Association • American Bar Association • National Organization for Women • National Football Players Association

  26. Most interest groups can be described as: • Biased • Illegal • Impartial • Ineffective

  27. All males must register at the age of 18 with the: • Selective Services • Draft Board • US Army • Board of Elections

  28. What provides a way for citizens to approve or reject state laws? • Referendum • Proposition • Mandate • Initiative

  29. When are referendums most likely used? • Daily issues • Run off elections • Recall elections • Controversial issues

  30. What is the main purpose of the media in politics? • Ratings • To inform us • To influence the government • Support the government