APUSH Period: 3A Expansion and Reform 1801 - 1850 R. M. Tolles
Era of Good Feelings • Ended the War of 1812 - feeling of national pride… “We stood up to the Giant, and walked away.” • Nationalism - feeling of intense loyalty and pride toward ones nation. Started acting like Americans not transplanted British • Supreme Court decisions that represented nationalism, under Chief Justice John Marshall
Election of 1816 • Madison secured the nomination of his secretary of state (then the seen stepping stone to President, not the VP) – James Monroe (Rep.) • Continuation of what many called the Virginia Dynasty • Rufus King of NY (Federalists) ran against Monroe but lost only receiving 34 electoral • Federalists died off as many saw their lack of support for the War of 1812 as anti - patriotic
President James Monroe • 5th 1817 - 1825 • Democratic Republican • Ended the War of 1812 - feeling of national pride… “We stood up to the Giant, and walked away.” • Nationalism - feeling of intense loyalty and pride toward ones nation. Started acting like Americans not transplanted British
FLORIDA • Indian raids forced the US to take • action. (The Seminole War) • Sec. of War (John C. Calhoun) Sent Gen. Jackson to squash raids, actually ended up seizing Spanish Settlements and removing the governor. • John Quincy Adams (Sec of State) • had already started negotiations. • When Jackson went to far, it was Adams who supported it. • Spain ceded Florida in the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
Culture • Hudson River School of Art - Art that is of American Landscapes. True American Artists and American Art developing around our own history. • Neoclassical Architecture - Greek revival mixed with American views and artists. Example: Monticello • Scientific Advances
“American System” • Henry Clay emerged in the Era of Good Feelings as one of the most prominent politicians of the day. • Clay fought for the American System – an economic development program that included tariffs to help industry, a national bank, and transportation projects that would be paid for by the tariffs. • North really liked it, South felt it was one sided.
Transportation National Road - 1806 - funded by Congress Cumberland, MD to Wheeling (West Virginia) Plank road - similar to the model in the Transportation Museum (Field Trip) Water - Steamboat - Robert Fulton The Clermont and James Watt (steam engine) Erie Canal - connected Albany to Buffalo (NY) 363 miles meant to connect the area for trade. Lowered cost (20-2 cents per mile) made NY City the greatest port in the US Railroads - most practical form of transportation year round. Largest economic force of this period. Connected the country both economically, and socially (ie: mail and communication)
Economy • Market Revolution – embrace of Capitalism (Free Enterprise System) • Manufacturing – machines to make goods • Centralized textile factory – All parts of a product made at one place • Factory work skyrocketed – Specialization, knowing one part of a system
TheRailroadRevolution,1850s • Immigrant laborbuilt the No. RRs. • Slave laborbuilt the So. RRs.
Industrial Revolution in Society • Industrial Revolution (mainly in the North) Use of machines to produce faster • Steam Engine • U.S. Stole textile ideas from England • Eli Whitney • Interchangeable Parts – beginning of assembly line • Cotton Gin – De-Seed cotton (Patent), PG 105 • Built more Roads
The Monroe Doctrine, 1823 • Referred to as America’s Self-Defense Doctrine. • What warning is given to the European countries? • What foreign policy principles are established? Monroe Doctrine • What would the US do if the warning was not headed?
Monroe Doctrine • President Monroe saw a recovering Europe, and wanted to make sure they didn’t try to reclaim North American Land. Said 4 things: • 1. U.S. not to be involved in foreign affairs • 2. U.S. Recognized Western Colonies • 3. U.S. No new Colonization in the West • 4. U.S. will defend anyone in the Western hemisphere from European Attack
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791 1807: The Clermont Robert Fulton & the Steamboat
Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 and the “Corrupt Bargain” Henry Clay[KY] John C. Calhoun[SC] John Quincy Adams[MA] William H. Crawford[GA] Andrew Jackson [TN]
Even with the support of the common man, getting elected President was not easy for Andrew Jackson. When he ran in 1824, he was stopped by the… “corrupt bargain”
Even with the support of the common man, getting elected President was not easy for Andrew Jackson. When he ran in 1824, he was stopped by the… “corrupt bargain” I’ll get you, Republicans!
Define “corrupt bargain” in your own words. You should have something like: Henry Clay got Quincy Adams elected President in the House in exchange for a position as Secretary of State. I’ll get you, Republicans!
Jackson’s anger over Clay and others’ turning against him leads him to split the Republican party by forming his own party, the… Jacksonian Democrats
Jackson’s anger over Clay and others’ turning against him leads him to split the Republican party by forming his own party, the… Jacksonian Democrats Booo!!! You’re worse than your father was at being President! The Jacksonian Democrats were helped by the fact that John Quincy Adams did not do well as President from 1825-1829.
New Political Parties • Whig Party - Founded in 1834 – formed in opposition to Jackson • Won with Harrison in 1840 • Start of a new round of Political parties in the US • Know-Nothings – (also called Americas Party) – based on nativism, or opposition to foreigners. • Often very secretive and anti-catholic
President John Quincy Adams • Father - John Adams the 2nd President: Father/Son President combination up till Bush/Bush Jr. • 6th Pres. - National Republicans party, a spin off of Jeffersonian views. • Nickname: “Accidental President”
essential question: How did the Age of Jackson change America?
The United States would change forever, becoming more like it is today during the… Age of Jackson • 1820s and 1830s • more power to the common man • states end the property requirement to vote • common men would then vote for Jackson because he grew up as a common man • more power to the President
Messy Campaign – Essential Question Rachel Jackson - divorce? Champion of the “Common Man”? “King”Andrew? OR
In 1828, Jackson won the Presidential election as more common men were able to vote. One permanent change in our nation’s politics involved how campaigns were conducted. The common man would often only get information from… mudslinging
In 1828, Jackson won the Presidential election as more common men were able to vote. One permanent change in our nation’s politics involved how campaigns were conducted. The common man would often only get information from… mudslinging The Constitution permits each state legislature to choose the method of electing presidential electors for its state. In 1800 the legislatures in most states appointed the electors. By 1824 most states had adopted more democratic systems in which electors pledged to specific presidential candidates were selected by popular vote in statewide elections.
In 1828, Jackson won the Presidential election as more common men were able to vote. One permanent change in our nation’s politics involved how campaigns were conducted. The common man would often only get information from… mudslinging Republican for life! vs. I’m a Democrat now!
In 1828, Jackson won the Presidential election as more common men were able to vote. One permanent change in our nation’s politics involved how campaigns were conducted. The common man would often only get information from… mudslinging Your mother is a covent garden nun*! a political cartoon depicting the mudslinging of the 1828 campaign *A covent garden nun was slang for a prostitute.
“OLD Hickory” Jackson’s Presidency - Jacksonian Age • Spoil System - appointing people to government positions based on party loyalty. First President to use this - considered a patronage (going with loyalty and friends over others) • Kitchen Cabinent - a group of trusted friends that he relied on instead of the multiple cabinets members • Veto - used the veto power extensively, used it more than all the other Presidents before him combined. Pocket Veto - used quite allot
How did Jackson’s spoils system change the way government works? spoils system = giving your political allies appointments when you are elected Although this cartoon was published by Thomas Nast in 1877 to ridicule the political corruption of that day, Jackson was credited with inventing the "spoils" system of giving the victors in an election the rewards of making job appointments.
Jackson’s Goal? • 1830 Indian Removal Act • Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) * “domestic dependent nation” • Worcester v. GA (1832) • Jackson:John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it! Indian Removal
How did Jackson’s Indian Policy show increased influence of the common man? How does Jackson’s Indian policy explain the current situation of Native Americans? “five civilized tribes” = those adopting some white culture to keep land Write the definition of the terms for a reference when you answer the questions in your own words. 1- Seminole 2- Creek 3- Choctaw 4- Chickasaw 5- Cherokee
Sequoyah = creates Cherokee alphabet (example of “being civilized”) Sequoyah, a Cherokee scholar, developed a written table of syllables for the Cherokee language that enabled his people to publish a tribal newspaper in both Cherokee and English.
Indian Removal Act of 1830= government funding treaties to move Natives west (Jackson prefers force)
Worcester v. Georgia = John Marshall says Native land rights have to be recognized; Jackson refuses to enforce Marshall dies in 1835, replaced by Roger B. Taney (Close friend of Jackson)
Trail of Tears = removal of Cherokees to Oklahoma (many died)
Trail of Tears = removal of Cherokees to Oklahoma (many died)
How did Jackson’s Indian Policy show increased influence of the common man and the President? How does Jackson’s Indian policy explain the current situation of Native Americans? possible terms to use in your answers: “five civilized tribes,” Sequoyah, Indian Removal Act, Worcester v. Georgia, Trail of Tears link to “Indian Reservation”
Tariff of Abomination • Tariff - tax on imports, reasoning - protect industry and encourage domestic buying • Tariff of 1828 - designed to help the North, VP Calhoun (SC) labeled the tariff the Tariff of Abomination. “South would be a servant to the Northern Businessman” • Tariff continually raised - 24 and in 28. Waiting on Jackson to pick a side. • B.O.S. – “I will Kill You (Calhoun) I will choose what is best for the nation! SC get over it - I have the guns you don’t” • SC threatened secession, Jackson prepares for a fight - Force Bill • Idea of Nullification was presented to SC, which didn’t diffuses the situation. • Compromise Tariff - Henry Clay, basically scaled down rates, everyone saves face.
How does the Nullification Crisis prove Jackson to be a powerful President? Tariff of Abominations = 1828 tariff that caused high prices; angered the South How am I supposed to make money growing cotton with such expensive manufactured goods?!?!
South Carolina Exposition= in reaction to the tariff, John C. Calhoun (V.P. at time, from S.C.) secretly published this to support nullification based on states’ rights States rights! Nullification! States rights! Nullification!
Nullification Crisis= standoff between S.C. and Jackson; S.C. refuses to collect tariff and Jackson threatens force; a lower tariff ends crisis (for now…) I’ll force you to collect the tariff! I propose a tariff bill that will lower the tariff and end this crisis! We nullify the tariff! States’ rights forever!
1830 Webster:Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. Webster – Haynes Debate Jackson:Our Federal Union—it must be preserved. Calhoun:The Union, next to our liberty, most dear.
How does the Nullification Crisis prove Jackson to be a powerful President? possible terms to use in your answer: Tariff of Abominations, South Carolina Exposition, nullification, states’ rights, Nullification Crisis
National Bank - Problem? • What was it? - Designed to run Hamilton’s economic plan and to produce bank notes (currency) Run successfully by Nicholas Biddle. • Why now? - Election of 1832, Henry Clay (hoping to make it a political issue in the next election, one in which Clay wanted to run against Jackson) tried to re-charter the bank, Jackson vetoed it • Election Results - Jackson won overwhelmingly, saw it as his duty to destroy the bank. • How? - Removed federal deposits from the bank and placed them into State (Pet) Banks
Opposition to the 2nd National Bank of The U.S. “Soft”(paper) $ “Hard”(specie) $ • state bankers feltit restrained theirbanks from issuingbank notes freely. • supported rapid economic growth & speculation. • Issue more money – grow the economy • felt that coin was the only safe currency. • didn’t like any bank that issued bank notes. • suspicious of expansion & speculation. • Supported by Jackson