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environmental monitoring

environmental monitoring

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environmental monitoring

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  1. environmental monitoring Pål Andersson (pal.andersson@ssm.se)

  2. From the appropriations directions for 2009 MonitoringSSM should have good knowledge about radiation levels in the environment, as well as good knowledge about changes in these levels, either caused by natural processes, new or changed human activities, or accidents.

  3. Euratom treaty, article 35/36 Article 35 of the Euratom Treaty requires each Member State to establish the facilities necessary to carry out continuous monitoring of the level of radioactivity in the air, water and soil Recommendation to monitor the following: Airborne particulatessurface waterwater intended for human consumptionmilkmixed diet.

  4. Helcom and Ospar conventions Helcom recommends to sample water sediment, fish, aquatic plants and benthic animals (additional samples are also recommended). Agreed within Ospar to sample water and molluscs.

  5. 3 types of monitoring Early warning and emergency preparedness Local monitoring at nuclear facilities National monitoring

  6. External gamma radiation

  7. European stations (28 in Sweden) http://eurdep.jrc.ec.europa.eu

  8. Airborne particles 6 stations 1000 m3/h 56cm x 56cm Operated by the Swedish defence research agency, FOI

  9. Reference Measurements • 2 instruments in each municipality • 2 - 4 reference points in each municipality • Approx. 900 ref. pts totally

  10. Summer Winter

  11. National monitoring Airborne particles Surface water Marine water Marine sediments Marine fish Moose Reindeer Milk Mixed diet Drinking water Wholebodymeasurements Soils and crops Radon in indoor air Ground gamma radiation

  12. Cs-137 [µBq/m3] Cesium-137 on particles in outdoor air (µBq/m3)

  13. Sea water Cesium-137 (Bq/m3)

  14. Sediment

  15. Sediment

  16. Milk

  17. Mixed diet, Cs-137 (Bq/person and day)

  18. Cs-137 Whole body content (Bq/kg)

  19. Average dose to the Swedish population Radon in indoor air Cosmic radiation Potassium in the body Medical diagnosis Ground and building materials Cs-137, primarily from the Chernobyl accident Naturally occuring radionuclides in the diet

  20. Vaccinium vitis-idaea Vaccinium myrtillus Rubus chamaemorus Rubus idaeus Berries

  21. Vaccinium vitis-idaea Rubus Chamaemorus

  22. Roe deer

  23. Soil

  24. Kosmisk strålning dosrat vid marknivån ca 45 nSv/h

  25. Svamp

  26. Renkött

  27. 129I i vattendrag [µBq l-1] 129I i ytvatten [µBq l-1] Storskalig spridning av 129I från LaHague och Sellafield

  28. Sediment

  29. Beräknad teoretisk fördelning av de svenska lungcancerfallen år 2000 mellan olika orsaker och mellan grupperna aldrig-rökare och rökare (McGale och Darby, 2006).

  30. Dos från kalium i kroppen

  31. 0,20 0,10

  32. Tabell 12.137Cs i svamp från Heby kommun 1990-2001 (kBq kg-1 torrvikt)