The Human Body Systems The Nervous System
The Nervous System What is the nervous system? • Control Center • Communications Network Responsibilities: - Thoughts- Senses- Movement - Balance- Automatic Responses
The Nervous System • The Nervous System Is Divided Into 2 Main Parts • The Central Nervous System (CNS) • The Brain & Spinal Cord • The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Nerves That Link Body With CNS
Basic Tasks of the Nervous System Sensory Input: Monitor both external and internal environments. Integration: Process the information and often integrate it with stored information. Motor output: If necessary, signal effector organs to make an appropriate response.
Communication • Nerves: Bundles of Tissue • Three Parts to a Neuron • Cell Body (the brain of a neuron) • Dendrites (receives) • Axon (carries signals)
Synapse Synapse: the joining of two neurons (one sending, one receiving).
Synapse & Neurotransmitters • The axons do not touch. • Separation: synaptic cleft. • Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by axons that travel through the synaptic cleft.
Synaptic Cleft & Neurotransmitters • Released by Axon • Travels Across Synaptic Cleft • Binds to Receptors on Next Nerve
The Brain • The Main Control Center (CNS) • Three Major Areas • Cerebrum • Cerebellum • Brain Stem
The Brain - Cerebrum • Center for thought, imagination, emotion, activity. • Two Halves (Hemispheres) • Each Half: 4 Lobes • Frontal • Temporal • Parietal • Occipital
Cerebrum –Lobes • Frontal Lobe: Speech, Thought, Taste, & Movement • Parietal Lobe: Touch • Temporal Lobe: Hearing • Occipital Lobe: Vision
The Brain - Cerebellum • Balance & Coordination • Smooth's Movement for Fine Coordination • Secondary: language, attention, regulating fear & pleasure
The Brain – Brain Stem • Guides Signals From Brain & Spinal Cord • Structurally Continuous • Three Parts • Midbrain • Pons • Medulla Oblongata
Brain Stem - Midbrain • Smallest Portion of Brain • Relays Information • Vision • Hearing • Motor Control • Sleep • Arousal • Alertness • Temperature
The Brain - Pons • Latin: bridge • Relays information • Sleep • Arousal • Automatic Functions • Heartbeat • Breathing • Digestions • Swallowing • Vomiting • Sneezing • Coughing
The Brain – Medulla Oblongata • Final Link Between Brain & Spinal Cord • Relays Information • Automatic Actions • Heartbeat • Breathing • Digestions • Swallowing • Vomiting • Sneezing • Coughing
Spinal Cord & Spine • Spinal Cord: thick cord of nerve tissue Spine: protective bone structure
Spine • Spine: protective bone structure • 33 vertebrae • 9 fused • 24 articulating (moving)
Spine • Categorized • Lower Bigger Vertebrae Which 9 vertebrae's are fused? Why?
Naming Vertebrae’s • C1 to C7 • T1 to T12 • L1 to L5 • Sacrum • Coccyx
The Human Body Systems The Skeletal System
The Skeletal System • What is the Skeletal System? • All 206 Bones in Body • What is the Purpose? • Give Body Shape & Support • Protection for Vital Organs • Produces Blood Cells
Parts of Bones (Long) • Epiphysis: Ends of Bone • Diaphysis: Middle of Bone
Parts of Bones (Long) Articular Cartilage: cartilage covering articular surfaces (joints) Purpose: Helps provide support/cushion in joints.
Parts of Bones (Long) Cancellous Bone (Spongy): a highly vascular bone that contains red bone marrow, typically located at the end of bones. It contains high surface area, but less density. Purpose: makes bone light and strong, while producing red blood cells.
Parts of Bones (Long) Epiphyseal Plate: contains growing bone in pre-adult years. As you age, the bone elongates. Once, you have stopped growing, this plate solidifies.
Parts of Bones (Long) Marrow Cavity: the cavity in the diaphysis of a long bone containing the marrow. Yellow Bone Marrow: soft tissue, made mostly of fat, that stores energy (diaphysis). Red Bone Marrow: soft tissue that aids in the production of red blood cells (epiphysis).
Parts of Bones (Long) Periosteum: membrane that lines the outer layer of bones. Purpose: outer layer serves as an attachment point for muscles and bones through tendons and ligaments. Purpose: inner layer will help breakdown and build bone.
Parts of Bones (Long) Compact Bone: provides support and is made up of living bone cells, minerals, protein fibers, blood vessels, and nerves.
Joints • Joints: the joining of two or more bones. • Types of Joints: • Fixed • Semimovable • Pivot • Ball-and-Socket • Hinge • Ellipsoidal 206 Total Bones = Lots of Joints
Fixed Joint A fixed joint does not allow movement.
Semimovable Joints A Semimovable joints allows for little movements.
Pivot Joint A pivot joint is a joint in which one bone rotates around another bone.
Ball-and-Socket Joint A ball-and-socket joint allows for great movement in any direction.
Hinge Joint A hinge joint allows for back and forth movement.
Ellipsoidal Joint An ellipsoidal joint allows for all movement except for rotation.
Identifying Bones • 206 Bones • Career Field How Much You Need to Know • Health Class The Basics
The Human Body Systems The Muscular System
The Muscular System • All Movement of Body • Running, Walking, Etc. • Breathing • Digesting Food • Pumping Blood • Protect Joints • Protect Organs • Create Heat
What are muscles made of? Muscle Fibers: bundles of long Paired Strains of Protein.
Parts of Muscle Fiber Actin (thin): Protein, Works with Myosin for Contraction. Myosin (thick): Protein, Works with Actin for Contraction (Motor).