The Microsystem The Mesosystem The Exosystem The Macrosystem The Chronosystem Family, peers, neighborhoods, schools Interactions in the microsystem, such as family support for schooling Societal influences, such as the type of jobs parents have The culture in which the child develops. Time-changing influences on development, such as advances in technology PowerPoint 3.1 Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Human Development Influences on Child Development in Bronfenbrenner’s Model of Human Development
PowerPoint 3.2 Parenting Styles: An Application (slide 1 of 2) 1. “In by 10," Ellen's dad says to her as she gets ready for her roller skating party, and then he turns back to his computer. "Aww, Dad," Ellen protests. "The party isn't over 'till 11. "I said 10. We said no later than 10 on school nights." "But, Dad, there's no school tomorrow. It's a teacher planning day." "Ellen, I said 10. The discussion is over." 2. "Tell me about school," Tanya's dad says over dinner. They talk for several minutes about school, social activities, and life in general. "Now, when is your concert?." "Thursday ," Tanya replies. "Oh, yeah, ...Remind me to call George and tell him I won't be able to meet him on Thursday," he says to Tanya's mother. "Tanya's concert is that night. " They finish dinner, and her dad finally says, "Better get started with your homework. " "Aww , Dad," Tanya grumbles. "No, get going. ...I'm working in here, so let me know if you get stuck on any of it, and I'll try and help you. ...I want to see it when you're finished.
PowerPoint 3.2 Parenting Styles: An Application (slide 2 of 2) 3. "Where's Jan?" Her dad asks her mother at 9:30 Thursday evening. "She called after school and said she was going home with Christy ," her mother responded. "Didn't she say she had a test tomorrow? ...When is she going to study?" "She said she was fine, and besides she's not too crazy about biology. I know her grades aren't as good as they could be, but you're only young once."
PowerPoint 3.3 Parenting Styles and Patterns of Personal Development (slide 1 of 2)
PowerPoint 3.3 Parenting Styles and Patterns of Personal Development (slide 2of 2)
PowerPoint 3.4 Identity, Self-Concept, and Erikson’s Work • Identity describes individuals’ senses of self, who they are, what their existence means, and what they want in life • Identity combines with people’s self-concept, a cognitive assessment of their physical, social, and academic competence, to influence they way they respond to learning activities and their environments in general. • Erikson’s work was strongly influenced by his search for his own identity, and he believed, as he described it, that he experienced a crisis of identity. • Erikson also believed that people have an instinctive desire to affiliate with others, and because he integrated identity and social factors in his theory of development, it is described as a psychosocial theory.
PowerPoint 3.5 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development (slide 1 of 3) Trust vs. Mistrust Trust in the world is developed through ( 0-1 year) continuous love and support. Autonomy vs. Shame Independence is fostered by successful and Doubt experiences formed by support and ( 1-3 years) structure. Initiative vs. Guilt An exploratory and investigative attitude ( 3-6 years) results from meeting and accepting challenges.
PowerPoint 3.5 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development (slide 2 of 3) Industry vs. Inferiority Enjoyment of mastery and competence ( 6-12 years) comes through success and recognition of accomplishment. Identity vs. Confusion Personal, social, sexual, and occupational (12-18 years) identity comes from success in school and experimentation with different roles. Intimacy vs. Isolation Openness to others and the development (Young adulthood) of intimate relationships result from interaction with others.
PowerPoint 3.5 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development (slide 3 of 3) Generativity vs. Stagnation Productivity, creativity, and concern for (Middle adulthood) the next generation are achieved through success on the job and a growing sense of social responsibilities. Integrity vs. Despair Acceptance of one’s life is achieved by (Old age) an understanding of a person’s place in the life cycle.
PowerPoint 3.6 Assumptions and Corollaries in Erikson’s Work (slide 1 of 2) Assumptions in Erikson’s Theory • People have the same basic needs. • The development of the self is a response to those needs. • Each stage of development is characterized by a psychosocial challenge, called a crisis, that presents opportunities for development. • Different stages reflect differences in the motivation of the individual.
PowerPoint 3.6 Assumptions and Corollaries in Erikson’s Work (slide 2 of 2) Corollaries in Erikson’s Theory • No one permanently resolves a crisis. • People do not remain at a stage if the crisis isn’t permanently resolved. • Less than ideal resolutions of crises at particular stages leaves individual’s with personality “glitches.” • The effectiveness of the resolution of crises determines emotional health.
Positive Resolution Trust in themselves and others. Relaxed, optimistic, and generous attitude. Good sense and command of their will power. Feel free to be themselves. Believe they know how the world works. Clear sense of what they want in life. Relish achievement and like to tackle challenging tasks. Negative Resolution See the world as inconsistent and threatening. See life as unpredictable, and view good things as temporary. Fear being exposed as inadequate. Attempt to hide feelings of powerlessness. Fear of being inadequate and of making mistakes. Self-restrictive and sometimes over-conscientious. Feel inadequate, incapable, and estranged. Lack ambition. PowerPoint 3.7 Positive and Negative Resolutions of Crises (slide 1 of 2)
Positive Resolution Know who they are, what their goals are, and where they're going. Commit to partnerships and have the ethics to abide by the commitments to same and opposite sex relationships. Concern for creation of better world. Focus on service to others. Feel their lives have meaning and significance. Negative Resolution See conflict in who they are and what they would like to be. Self-absorbed. Identity is too fragile to maintain the uncertainties of intimacy. Lack long-term goals and commitments. Live for short-term gratification. View life as filled with missed opportunities. PowerPoint 3.7 Positive and Negative Resolutions of Crises (slide 2 of 2)
PowerPoint 3.8 Erikson’s Theory in the Classroom (slide 1 of 4) Three teachers are involved in a conversation in the faculty workroom during their lunch period. "What are you doing?" Kevin asked Sue as she pored over some papers during their lunch period. "I want to give these papers back, so the kids can figure out their bonus points." "What. ..what are you talking about?" "I'm using a new system in my class," Sue continued. "Whenever I give a quiz, if the score is higher than their average, they get bonus points. That way they get rewarded for improving, regardless of their average. I told them that if they consistently improve, they can't fail It's working. I have kids studying that never tried before. "
PowerPoint 3.8 Erikson’s Theory in the Classroom (slide 2of 4) (Three teachers are involved in a conversation in the faculty workroom during their lunch period continued from previous slide) "I think you work too hard," Mary interjected. " All you do is work. You're the first one here in the morning, the last one out at night, and now you're working at lunch." "Yeah, ...I know," Sue nodded, "but I worry about some of these kids. School has always been such a tough place for them. I'm afraid later on we'll lose them forever." "I understand," Mary shrugged, "but I'm so tired. Jeff comes over, and we talk until we're blue in the face.. I care about him, but I just don't know. .." "That's interesting," Kevin added. "My problems are a little different. Most of the kids are fine. It's just Karen and Andy. They will do what I ask them to do and no more. They're so afraid of making a mistake, but the work they do is always quite good, sometimes very good. It would be good to see them relax, go beyond the minimum and do some things on their own."
PowerPoint 3.8 Erikson’s Theory in the Classroom (slide 3 of 4) Based on the best evidence available in the case study and on Erikson‘s work, answer the following questions. In each case provide the evidence on which your conclusions are based. 1. What school level is this-elementary, middle, or secondary? 2. What is your estimate of Sue's age? 3. What is your estimate of Mary's age? 4. What stage of psychosocial development is best illustrated by Karen's and Andy's behaviors?
PowerPoint 3.8 Erikson’s Theory in the Classroom (slide 4 of 4) Feedback: 1. What school level is this-elementary, middle, or secondary? Based on Sue's concern for her students' success, the best estimate of the schools' level is elementary. At the elementary level, learners chronologically are faced with the challenge of industry versus inferiority. Success, challenge, and improvement of skills help contribute to a sense of industry. 2. What is your estimate of Sue's age? Sue's behavior indicates that she has positively resolved the generativity versus stagnation crisis. This is most characteristic of a person in middle adulthood, which could range from approximately the mid 30s to the mid 50s. 3. What is your estimate of Mary's age? Mary is demonstrating behaviors characteristic of the intimacy versus isolation stage, which is characteristic of young adulthood, so somewhere in her 20s would be a reasonable estimate. 4. What stage of psychosocial development is best illustrated by Karen's and Andy's behaviors? Karen and Andy indicate a lack of resolution of the initiative versus guilt stage of psychosocial development.
PowerPoint 3.9 States in Identity Development State Identify diffusion Identity foreclosure Identity moratorium Identity achievement Description Individuals fail to make clear choices, and confusion is common. Choices may be difficult, or individuals may not be developmentally ready to make choices. Individuals prematurely adopt ready-made positions of others, particularly parents. Decisions are based on the identities of others. Individuals pause and remain in a holding pattern. Long-range commitment is delayed. Individuals experience a period of crises and decision making. A commitment to a goal or direction is made.
PowerPoint 3.10 Sexual Identity The students have been dismissed for the day and you’re in your room planning for the next day. One of your students comes in and asks to talk to you. You say, “Of course, . . . What’s on your mind.” “I’m having a lot of trouble. Students are pushing me around, knocking my books out of my hands and calling me gay. . . . Actually, I am gay.” How do you respond to this student? What is your professional obligation to him and others who may be like him?
PowerPoint 3.11 The Relationships Among the Dimensions of Self-Concept and Achievement
PowerPoint 3.12 Self-Esteem in Our Popular Culture Self-concept and self-esteem (self worth) are often confused, much to the detriment of students and people in general. “High self esteem is offered as a panacea for problems. Low self-esteem is seen as the root of problems such as . . . body image problems, marital infidelity, learning problems and personal unhappiness. . . . Increasing self esteem will result in remediation of these problems. Some educators subscribe to this simplistic view. Teachers are afraid to say anything negative to students about their performance because they believe it will hurt the students’ self-esteem. Children are asked to chant positive statements about themselves to enhance self-esteem.” (Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2008, p. 221-222)
PowerPoint 3.13 Theory to Practice: Promoting Identity and Self Concept Development Guidelines for Promoting Identity and Self Concept Development in Your Classroom • Create a learning-focused classroom and communicate genuine interest in all students. • Use an authoritative management style to help your students develop responsibility. • Reward autonomy and initiative in your students. • Establish appropriately high expectations for all learners, and provide evidence of increasing competence. 5. Design grading systems that emphasize learning progress and personal growth.
PowerPoint 3.14 Ethnic Identity and Pride “Minority students need to know that their cultures are valued and that the languages they bring to school are assets rather than obstacles or liabilities. Teachers play a crucial role in making every student feel wanted and loved by the overt and implicit messages they send through their teaching.”
PowerPoint 3.15 Perspective Taking and Social Problem Solving Octavio, Mindy, Sarah, and Bill are studying American westward expansion in social studies. They’d been working as a group for 3 days and are preparing a report to be delivered to the class. There is some disagreement about who should present which topics. “So what should we do?” Mindy asks, looking at the others. “Octavio, Sarah, and Bill all want to report on the Pony Express.” “I thought of it first,” Octavio argues. “But everyone knows I like horses,” Sarah counters “Why don’t we compromise?” Mindy suggests. “Octavio, didn’t you say that you were kind of interested in railroads because your grandfather worked on them? Couldn’t you talk to him and get some information for the report? And Sarah, I know you like horses. Couldn’t you report on horses and the Plains Indians?. . . And Bill, what about you?” “I don’t care . . . whatever,” Bill replies, folding his arms and peering belligerently at the group.
PowerPoint 3.16 Theory to Practice: Promoting Social Development in Classrooms Promoting Social Development in Classrooms • Model and explicitly teach social skills to your students. • Establish rules governing acceptable classroom behavior. • Help students understand the reasons for rules by providing examples and rationales. 4. Have students practice social skills, and give them feedback.
PowerPoint 3.18 Moral, Conventional, and Personal Domains Moral, Conventional, and Personal Domains • You see a classmate has left his pen on his desk after school. Is it okay to take the pen? • One of your friends is a “big talker.” Is it okay to interrupt her while she’s in midsentence to make a point that you want to make? • You have a classroom rule that says to raise hands for permission to speak. Other students are speaking without raising their hands. Is it okay to speak without permission? • Getting tattoos is popular with some students. Is it okay to get a tattoo?
PowerPoint 3.19 An Application of Piaget’s Description of Moral Development "Listen, everyone.... I need to go to the office for a moment," Amanda Kellinger said as her students were completing a seat‑work assignment. "You all have work to do, so work quietly on it until I get back." The quiet shuffling of pencils and papers could be heard for a few moments, and then Gary whispered, "Psst, what math problems are we supposed to do?" "Shh! No talking," Talitha said, pointing to the rules posted on the bulletin board. "But he needs to know so he can do his homework," Krystal put in. "It's the evens on page 79." "Who cares?" Dwain growled. "She's not here. She won't catch us." Describe the moral reasoning Krystal, Talitha, and Dwain each demonstrated. Talitha and Dwain each displayed external morality, whereas Krystal demonstrated thinking that reflected internal morality. Also point out that authoritarian parenting and teaching styles (as opposed to authoritative styles) tend to retard the development of autonomous morality.
PowerPoint 3. 20 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning (slide 1 of 3) Level I: Preconventional The ethics of egocentrism. Typical of Ethics children up to about age 10. Called preconventional because children typically don’t fully understand others’ rules. Stage 1: Moral reasoning based on immediate Punishment and Obedience consequences for the individual. An act is moral if a person isn’t punished for it. It is immoral if the person is punished. Stage 2: Moral reasoning based on reciprocity. An Market Exchange act is moral if a similar act occurs in return.
PowerPoint 3. 20 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning (slide 2 of 3) Level II: Conventional Ethics The ethics of others. Typical of 10 to 20- year-olds. Called conventional because of or the conformity to the rules and conventions of society. Stage 3: Moral reasoning based on concern for others Interpersonal Harmony or the opinions of others. An act is moral if others demonstrate similar acts, or it helps or is approved of by others. Stage 4: Moral reasoning based on rules, laws, and Law and Order an orderly society. An act is moral if it follows rules or promotes an orderly society.
PowerPoint 3. 20 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning (slide 3 of 3) Level III: Postconventional The ethics of principle. Called postconven- Ethics tional because transcends society’s rules. Reached by a small portion of the population. Stage 5: Moral reasoning based on principled Social Contract agreements among people. An act is moral if it is consistent with a principled agreement. Stage 6: Moral reasoning based on abstract principles. Universal Principles An act is moral if it is consistent with an abstract principle that transcends an individual society.
PowerPoint 3.17 Moral Reasoning on the Interstate (slide 1 of 2)
PowerPoint 3.17 Moral Reasoning on the Interstate (slide 2 of 2) What stage is represented by your reasoning? Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony Moral reasoning based on concern for others or the opinions of others. An act is moral if others demonstrate similar acts, or it helps or is approved of by others. “Everyone else is driving the same speed,” is an example. What stage is represented by highway patrol reasoning? Stage 4: Law and Order Moral reasoning based on rules, laws, and an orderly society. An act is moral if it follows rules or promotes an orderly society. “My radar had you clocked at 75, and the speed limit clearly says 65,” is an example.
PowerPoint 3.21 Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 1 of 3) Instructions: For the following items consider a teenager who is out with her friends. She is supposed to be in by midnight. She complies. Which of Kohlberg’s stages is best illustrated by each of the reasons stated below? 1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents. 2. Nobody’s doing anything anyway so I won’t be missing anything. 3. My parents and I agreed that midnight is fair, and you can’t go back on your agreements. • If I stay out my parents will be worried. • It’s the curfew, so I’ll be in by midnight. 6. My friends have curfews, too, and they’re going to be home by then.
PowerPoint 3.21 Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 2 of 3) 1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents. Stage 1: Her concern is about being punished. • Nobody’s doing anything anyway so I won’t be missing anything. Stage 2: The focus is on herself. An exchange isn’t evident; but her reasoning is egocentric. • My parents and I agreed that midnight was fair, and you can’t go back on your agreements. Stage 5: She and her parents have agreed on the time to be in.
PowerPoint 3.21 Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 3 of 3) • If I stay out my parents will be worried. Stage 3: She is concerned about her parents’ feelings. • It’s the curfew, so I’ll be in by midnight. Stage 4: She is obeying the rule because it’s the rule. • My friends have curfews, too, and they’re going to be home by then. Stage 3: She is responding to the behavior of the group.
PowerPoint 3.22 Emotional Factors in Moral Development: An Application “Are you okay?” her mother asks as Melissa walks in the house after school. “I feel bad, Mom,” Melissa murmurs. “We were working in a group, Jessica said something odd, and I said, ‘That’s dumb.’ . . .Then, she didn’t say anything for the rest of our group time. She doesn’t get great grades, and I know she’s sensitive about it. I really hurt her feelings. It just sort of came out.” “I know you didn’t mean to hurt her feelings, Sweetheart. Did you tell her you were sorry?” “No, when I realized it, I just sat there. I know how I’d feel if someone said I was dumb.” “Tell you what,” her mom suggests. “Tomorrow, you go directly to her, tell her you’re very sorry, and that it won’t happen again.” “Thanks, Mom. I’ll do it as soon as I see her . . . . I feel a lot better.” • Identify three emotions that Melissa felt when she described the incident to her mother. • What does experiencing these emotions suggests about Melissa’ moral development?
PowerPoint 3.23 Theory to Practice: Promoting Moral Development in Your Classroom Guidelines for Promoting Moral Development 1. Model ethical thinking, behavior, and empathy in your interactions with students. 2. Use classroom management as a vehicle for promoting moral development. 3. Encourage students to understand and respect the perspectives of others. 4. Use moral dilemmas as concrete reference points for discussions of moral issues.
PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 1 of 3) 1. Bridget encouraged a positive resolution of Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. While Terese’s age suggests the Initiative vs. Guilt (and this would have been the case if Terese had intended to wash the dishes when she climbed the step stool), in this instance she was climbing the step stool to simply climb. Bridget provided structure and support by suggesting that her climb have a purpose--washing the dishes. 2. Severn’s interest and enthusiasm in taking the pottery class, and his enjoyment and the recognition he received from the teacher and his mother suggest that he is successfully resolving the Industry vs. Inferiority stage. 3. Bridget’s commitment, as indicated by her comment, “I really think I can make a difference in people’s lives,” suggests that she is successfully resolving the Generativity vs. Stagnation crisis.
PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises(slide 2 of 3) 4. Barbara appears to have failed to successfully resolve the Industry vs. Inferiority crisis. In Barbara’s eyes her teachers and her academic accomplishments suggested a path other than college or some other career besides secretarial school. It seems from the dialogue that her interests seem to lie in the direction of art/design area, one that was not encouraged or recognized as a strength by significant others. 5. Though being the grandmother of a 40-year-old might suggest Integrity vs Despair, Mary remains in the mainstream of life, and has continued interest in living productively with her travel and painting. This suggests Generativity vs. Stagnation. 6. The secretary is demonstrating Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony, ethics. Loyalty to someone else illustrates this stage. Since the focus is on loyalty as opposed to fear of repercussion, or some personal favor, we see no evidence of Stage 1 or Stage 2 thinking.
PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 3 of 3) 7. This case illustrates Stage 2: Market Exchange. The key is the promise of protection in exchange for providing corroborating evidence. 8. Her reasoning is at Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience. The consequence of being fired if her boss’s deed is discovered or reported caused the secretary to keep silent and continue to work for him as she always has. 9. In this case, the secretary’s behavior indicates Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony. Her decision not to contact the police was out of concern for the welfare of her children if she were fired from her job. 10. This reasoning suggests Stage 5: Social Contract. Agreements about keeping confidences is made among the people involved, the sanctity of which is kept until mutually agreed upon changes are made.