South AsiaPhysical & Cultural Geography India is called a “subcontinent” because it is a distinct landmass connected to a continent.
A Land of Great Variety • Subcontinent used to be part of Africa • Deccan Plateau lies between eastern and westernghats (prevent rainy winds) • The subcontinent collided (tectonic plate movement) with Asia, the HimalayaMountains were thrust up (Mt. Everestis the world’s tallest peak.)
The Khyber Pass Khyber Pass-A narrow valley between two mountain ranges in northern Pakistan Invading forces could only get to India through passes like the Khyber Pass
Sri Lanka– tear-drop shaped island off of the southern coast of India. • Maldives– chain of tiny coral atolls and volcanic outcroppings off west coast of India.
Major River (Life) Systems • Ganges River -flows east from the Himalayas/carries fertile soil from mountains onto Ganges alluvial plains -considered a holy river -India’s most densely populated area • Brahmaputra -major inland waterway -provides Bangladesh with 50% of its power • Indus River -cradle of ancient India -flows through Pakistan
Ganges River Indus River Brahmaputra
Natural Resources • Water: provides fertile soil, drinking water, transportation and hydroelectric power--- Indus River in Pakistan (large dam) • Energy: Petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and coal • Minerals: Mica (electrical equipment) Iron (machinery/tools) Graphite (pencil lead) Precious/semi-precious stones • Timber and Fishing
Climate Regions • Tropical and subtropical– western coast of India, near the Ganges Delta, and Sri Lanka; vegetation – fruit trees, deciduous and coniferous trees, orchids and bamboo. (monsoons and cyclones) • Highlands– (coldest) Himalaya and Karakoram Mountains; vegetation depends on elevation, lichens and mosses at mountain tops, varied grasses and trees at the foot of the mountains. • Dry – “The Great Indian Desert”, also includes steppe regions; vegetation – desert scrub, grasses, and some small trees.
Subsistence farming is the primary occupation. • Rice • Fruit • Tea • Rubber • Coconut • Cotton • Jute • Corn • Chili’s • spices
Modern Technology & Farming Techniques Improve Agriculture of Today • Irrigation, pest control & fertilization increased production • Green Revolution- transformation period where developing countries sought to increase and improve crop development • Agricultural practices increased crop production.
Ethnic Groups • India– 80% Hindu (descendants of Dravidians/Aryans) • Pakistan- mostly Muslims, variety of ethnic groups due to large #’s of refugees • Bangladesh- mostly Bengali Muslims • Sri Lanka – Sinhalese Buddhists and Tamil Hindu but Tamils Tigers are radical rebel nationalists • Bhutan and Nepal– descendants of Mongolia; Hindus and Buddhists Muslims do not eat pork. Daltis- lowest social class of India, oppressed people
Population Density High population density: • Ganges River (liquid god) • Ganges River Delta (rich alluvial soils) • Malabar Coast (monsoon rains/rain shadow effect) *Bangladesh- Private companies and governmental programs are giving women small loans to start their own businesses to reduce population growth. Low population density: • Mountains (Himalayas) • Deserts (Great Indian Desert) • Lack of resources and harsh climate conditions
Urban and Rural Life • Rural Life - villages - struggle to grow enough food for their family • Urban Life - better jobs/higher wages - educational opportunities - Result of rapid urbanization: Fewerjobs, strained public resources (schools, hospitals, etc…) *Poor healthcare do to lack of clean water. (Low life expectancy/High infant mortality) Many generations live in one household. Religion is important in both.
Religions • Islam • Hinduism • Buddhism • Sikhism • Jainism Guru(Sanskrit: गुरु), a religious or spiritual teacher, used in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, ... Mantra-chants of repetitive prayers
Hinduism • A religion and way of life-5000 years old. • Many gods/goddesses in different forms of the eternal being. Tolerant of other religions. • Dharma- must carry out their moral duty • Reincarnation- idea that people are reborn after death into a new form according to how well they lived their former life previous life • Karma- actions taken in accord with their dharma • Vegan (do not eat meat or products from animals) • The Vedas- holy book • Sadhu- Hindu holy men, yellow robes, begging bowls
Hindu Caste System • Developed from The Vedas (ancient writing left by the Aryans) Social structure flexible at first, intermarriage between social levels accepted • Social class (jati) became entrenched in the Hindu religion, social classes were not mobile • 4 levels: priests warriors artisans farmers (Untouchables)
Buddhism Eight Fold Path Monk • Developed by Siddhartha Gautama( 563 BC) • As an adult he rejected materialism in search of the true nature of human existence. • Developed as a series of religious rituals, as a way to help people achieve happiness; • Enlightenment comes by following the Eightfold Path (separations from worldly things)- nirvana • Vegetarian Buddha Replica Temple
Noble Eightfold Path Wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñā, Pāli: paññā) 1. Right view 2. Right intention Ethical conduct (Sanskrit: śīla, Pāli: sīla) 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right livelihood Mental discipline (Sanskrit and Pāli: samādhi) 6. Right effort 7. Right mindfulness 8. Right concentration
Jainism • Began as protest against the caste system • Respect ALL life; do not kill even insects • Refuse to harm because they might harm living things • Successful businessmen Mask to prevent inhaling insects
Sikhism • One god • Good deeds and meditation bring release from the cycle of reincarnation FIVE K’s: kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā (small comb), kaṛā (circular heavy metal bracelet) kirpān (ceremonial short sword) kacchā (special undergarment).
Mohandas Gandhi • Former attorney who fought for Indian independence from the British through non-violent means (civil disobedience)
Regional Conflicts • Border disputes between India and Pakistan • Complicated by nuclear weapons • Nationalism-Tamil rebel groups want a separate state in Sri Lanka. • Religious conflicts between Muslims and Hindus.
Language • English- international business and tourism • Hindi- primary language, common language of India. • Sanskrit- religious, literary, and musical purposes.
Indian Art Forms & Works • Two epic traditional poems: Mahabharata and Ramayana tell of religious and social beliefs. • Dances: India Bharata Natyam-based on mythology and Kathakali • Movies produced in “Bollywood” • Stupa- displays Buddhist devotions • Dzong- fortified monastery
Quality of Life Very low life expectancy-61 in India Second highest HIV rate in the world Very little clean water Poor nutrition-most South Asians are too poor to buy good foods Religious restrictions on food are also limiting Education system is poor but improving
British Control of India • Major European power in India • Raj-Hindi word for empire • British influences: Railroads Education System Civil Service
How has the economy changed since India gained its independence? After independence, Socialism (political philosophy in which government owns the means of production) was introduced, but growth eventually slowed. In 1991, began moving towards a market economy; government deregulated industry and encouraged private ownership.
Light industries in the region: Textiles Wool Shoes Carpets Bicycles Parts Heavy industries in the region: Steel Iron Cement Heavy machinery Ship breaking Nuclear proliferation: spreading development of nuclear weapons Bio mass: plants and animal dung used for energy
Major Environmental Issues • Wildlife being threatened • As population grows, natural habitats are being destroyed • Illegal poaching is destroying wildlife • Dirty Water • Over 80% of the people of India lack access to clean water
Major Environmental Issues • Deforestation • Commercial timber companies and local farmers have destroyed forests • Chipko’shave fought to preserve forests • Environmental Solutions? • Governments have stepped in to ban deforestation • Governments have tried to build more dams along major rivers • Governments have created wildlife habitats to protect animals
Technology, Tourism, & Movements • Millions use internet • Manufacture software • Manufacture television and communication equipment • Tourism- temples, festivals, and mountains • Chipko- India’s “tree hugger” movement to prevent deforestation
Causes & effects of the Kashmir conflict: Effects • Money spent on wars not food and human needs • Economic sanctions hurt India & Pakistan economies CAUSES • Border disputes • Religious differences • Nuclear proliferation