4 sub regions of South Asia • India • Pakistan & Bangladesh • Nepal & Bhutan • Sri Lanka & the Maldives
Differences between the northern and southern regions of Southeast Asia North Development along the Ganges River Rice cultivation Surplus food Increases in population Civilization develops into kingdoms Raja-head of state part of the warrior class
Differences between the north and south South Geography makes unification difficult Also develop caste system (future slides) Spread to the coast Develop sea ports and sea trading networks
Indo-Aryans Language—Sanskrit Varnas—Class/caste system Kshatriyas—warrior class Brahmins—priest class Vaisyas—merchants, Sudras—artisans, farmers Non-Indo-Aryans Untouchables Created by the Purusha (universal spirit)
Take Five… • Name the 3 major religions that emerged from Southeast Asia.
Hinduism Brahma-the creator Vishnu-the preserver Siva-the destroyer Essential beliefs of Hinduism Reincarnation dharma (moral duty) Karma (good or bad)
Hinduism • Vedas • Rig-veda • Preservation of all life
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama “Buddha” or the “Enlightened One” Essential beliefs Four noble truths 1. all human life contains suffering and sorrow 2. desire causes suffering 3. by rejecting desire, people can attain nirvana, which frees the soul from reincarnation 4. following the eightfold path leads to the rejection of desire
Essential beliefs of Buddhism Rejected the Vedas (ancient religious texts) Opposed the Brahmins Rejected the Varna (caste) system Theraveda “way of the elders” Mahayana “greater vehicle”—total peace to live a moral life and then be rewarded
Buddhism (con’t) The Eightfold Path right faith intentions speech action living effort mindfulness meditation
Jainism • Founders: 24 Jinas (“those who have overcome”) • Ahimsa-path of non-violence • Vegetarians • Based on 3 Ratnas (jewels): Right faith; Right knowledge; Right action
Mahavira • Prince Vardhaman • Rejected life as a prince • Focused on meditation and suffering for Jainism • Became known as Mahavira “Great Hero” • Achieves Nirvana and Moksha with death at 72 • Celebrated as Jainism holiday
India • Early Indian civilization= Indus Valley 2500 BC • Aryans crossed the mountains of Hindu Kush and took control of the region pushing the native peoples to the South
Unification by the Mauryan Empire • Asoka the Great 321 BC • Unifies India and Spreads Buddhism
Gupta Empire Takes Over • Chandragupta I comes to power in approximately 330 BC and unites northern India • Chandragupta I is followed by sons and grandsons who expand more of northern and eastern India • Ruled until approximately 500 BC
Hindu culture in the Gupta Age “classical age” Advances in art and literature Advances in mathematics & science numerals and decimal system est. (pi) & that the earth is spherical and rotates on an axis Advances in medicine
Gupta Society Expansion of the jati (caste system) system The 4 stages of life Moksha=liberation from reincarnation—the cycle of death and rebirth Women in Guptan society Suttee—the practice of committing suicide in the event husband dies (usually only the upper classes)
Other Invaders • Central Asian Peoples • Muslims • Establishment of the Mughal Empire from the 1500’s to the 1700’s
European Imperialism • French, Dutch, Portuguese, and British make trade relationships with Indian chiefs • Great Britain ultimately successful • Est. British East India Co. • Controlled trade by 1757 • Controlled India by 1857 called the raj • Controlled for 90 years despite rebellions
Non-violent Protest • Mohandas Gandhi • Great Britain grants independence (8-14-1947) • Division of India • Pakistan and Bangladesh separate • Division leads to conflict • Hindus vs Muslims
World’s Largest Democracy • Effects of British imperialism • Federation of states (like US) • Prime minister (like G.B.) • Parliamentary democracy (like G.B.) • Representation from all groups: Hindu, Muslim, Sikhs & Tamils • Assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (1984) by a Sikh extremist
Take Five… • Complete the skillbuilder on pg. 569
Economy of India • One of world’s largest, but slowest economies • ½ of India’s population are impoverished • 2/3’s are farmers • 5% of the population own 25% of the land (1990’s) • Land reform—redistribution of land (unsuccessful) • Green Revolution more successful—new farming techniques and increased crop yields
Economy of India • Cotton textiles • Iron, steel, chemical, machinery etc • Major industrial cities • Calcutta • Bombay * most industrialized city • Ahmadabad • Madras • Bangalore * center for technology
Tradition vs Modern Ideology • Arranged marriages • Extended family groups • Vegetarians (religion) • Soccer, field hockey etc • Bollywood (Hollywood Indian style) * Bombay
Indian Culture… • Education—growing literacy rates • Many languages—mostly Sanskrit • Southern India—4 main languages
Take Five… • Why did Pakistan and Bangladesh break away from India after the British occupation?
Early civilization… • Today Pakistan = Indus River Valley civilization 2500 BC • Sophisticated for its time period with major cities and irrigation systems • Fell to Aryans around 1500 BC and then suffered from other invasions
Partition • Division of India • India (Hindu) & Muslim Pakistan (East & West) • Conflict and violence (approx. 1 million deaths) • Movement of people across borders • Additional conflict and civil war between E & W Pakistan • 1971 East Pakistan won its independence and became Bangladesh
Wally Points… • If E and W Pakistan are both Muslim countries, then why did they fight a civil war?
Politics in Pakistan and Bangladesh • Attempted democracies=failed • Military rule dominates • Political corruption • 1990’s both countries had female prime ministers (a step in the right direction???) • Conflict, war and violence • Ex: Kashmir—fighting over territory between India and Pakistan
Economics • Large populations • Primarily agricultural based economies • Subsistence farming • Hindered by seasonal monsoons, drought, cyclones and low yields • Most productive in Pakistan through irrigation from the Indus River • Rice, cotton and freshwater fish are main industries for export • Poverty (Bangladesh one of the poorest countries in the world)
Economics (con’t) • Small industry • Lack capital, resources, educated workforce and markets • Textile industries primarily • Cotton, wool and leather goods • Microcredit=Began in Bangladesh and offered to small business owners (some women). Small business owners join together and apply for a joint loan—must repay the loan together.
Take Five… • Complete the skill builder questions on pg. 575.
Wally Points… • What do you see as potential problems with microcredit?
Religion • Both Pakistan and Bangladesh were part of the Mughal empire and therefore Muslim • Only about 10% of the population are Hindu • Practice the Muslim faith • Ramadan and Mosques • Pakistan is stricter • Ex: Purdah=seclusion of women (wearing veils)
Ethnic diversity • Pakistan has 5 main ethnic groups • Each has own language and culture • Each has own regional territory with Pakistan • Urdu is the official language of Pakistan • Bangladesh primarily one ethnic group: Bengalis • Primary language is Sanskrit
Culture • Arranged marriages common • Families live together in extended family units • Most people are rural and live simply • Large cities are overcrowded—traffic is a problem • Enjoy sports: soccer and cricket and Bollywood!! • Attend mushairas (large gatherings for poetry readings) • Rabindranath Tagore=Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913=“My Golden Bengal” • Folk dances are popular • Ex: Qawwali—religious devotional singing
Geography of Nepal and Bhutan • Isolated by Himalayas • Steep mountain passes and year round ice fields • Landlocked countries—no access to the sea • Plus side…made it hard to conquer and settle colonies here • Generally remained independent throughout the period of European imperialism
Politics • Historically split into small religious kingdoms • Hindu kings (Nepal) & Buddhist priests (Bhutan) • Today=both are constitutional monarchies • Bhutan has a king as a supreme ruler (hereditary) • Nepal has a king with shared power by an elected parliament
Economics • Poor countries primarily based upon agriculture • Poor soil, erosion and unfertile land for agriculture however • Created terrace farming to try to help their situation • Products: rice, cotton, potatoes and wheat • Livestock: cattle, sheep, yaks • Timber also an industry in both countries • Deforestation (70% of Bhutan still retains forest lands) • Manufacturing is beginning –wool and food processing production • Primary trading partner =India
Tourism • Fascination with the Himalayas and Mt. Everest • Hotels, restaurants, guided tours (Sherpa) etc… • Rise in economy, but also increase in pollution and destruction of wildlife