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Physical Geography of South Asia PowerPoint Presentation
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Physical Geography of South Asia

Physical Geography of South Asia

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Physical Geography of South Asia

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  1. Physical Geography of South Asia

  2. Land Features

  3. I. A SEPARATE LAND *South Asia is about ½ the size of the continental United States at 1.7 million square miles

  4. *it is separated from the rest of Asia by its ??????? *South Asia is called a subcontinent (large distinct landmass that is joined to a continent) *it is bordered by . . . -W = ???? -S = ???? -E = ???? -N = ????

  5. II. A LAND OF GREAT VARIETY *in the north, you find the world’s highest sharp, icy peaks that rise above the desert plateaus and rich valleys *in the south, you find lower, eroded mountains and flat plateaus

  6. A. Himalaya -South Asia was part of Africa 60 million years ago *broke off and collided with the southern edge of Asia *collision created . . . Himalaya and Hindu Kush *Mt. Everest in Himalaya = 29,035 feet (highest peak in the world)

  7. Natural Wonders: Mt. Everest

  8. B. Other Northern Landforms 1. Khyber Pass *historically, invaders from north could enter this region through a few narrow crossing passes, such as Khyber Pass (in Hindu Kush between Pakistan and Afghanistan) *How do you think this pass impacted early life in this region?

  9. 2. Ganges Plain *lies at foot of Himalaya *watered by Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra Rivers *1/10 of population lives in this area – India’s most densely populated area *world’s longest alluvial plain

  10. 3. Chota Nogpur Plateau *high tableland of forests in northeast India

  11. C. Central Landforms (Vindhya Range) -formed by collision between Indian subcontinent and Asia *divides India into northern and southern physical and cultural regions (we will look more at this with culture)

  12. D. Southern Landforms 1. Eastern and Western Ghats *form a triangle of rugged hills (eroded mountains)

  13. 2. Deccan Plateau *between Eastern and Western Ghats *very rich, black soil, because once covered by volcanic ash *Western Ghats prevent yearly rainy winds from reaching the plateau (leaves it arid)

  14. 3. Karnataka Plateau *receives the plentiful rainfall from above (#2) *hills are lush and green (rainforest located here) *good for growing crops

  15. III. MAJOR RIVER SYSTEMS *rivers are the key to life here – provide drinking water, transportation, alluvial soil, fishing, and hydroelectric power to the people of this region

  16. A. Indus River -flows mainly through Pakistan -important transportation route and irrigation source to orchards in the region -Indus River Valley = the cradle of ancient Indian civilization (one of the earliest in the world)

  17. B. Brahmaputra River -joins the Ganges River in Bangladesh -major waterway for ships to sail inland from the Bay of Bengal (navigable) -also provides Bangladesh with 50% of its power (hydroelectric power)

  18. Varanasi C. Ganges River -most important river of South Asia *named after Hindu goddess, Ganga – Hindus consider the river sacred -during the summer monsoon, heavy rains cause devastating floods along the Ganges

  19. IV. NATURAL RESOURCES *South Asia depends on a variety of natural resources for its livelihood A. Energy Resources -some petroleum reserves, but mainly dependent on imported oil

  20. B. Minerals -South Asia supplies 90% of the world’s mica (layered rock used in making electrical equipment) -Sri Lanka produces sapphires, rubies, and other precious and semi-precious stones -exporters of silver fir, oak, magnolia, beech, birch, teak, and sandalwood C. Timber

  21. Climate Regions

  22. I. SOUTH ASIA'S CLIMATES Directions: Work with a partner to complete the table below.

  23. What climate type do these climographs depict?

  24. II. MONSOONS *much of South Asia experiences 3 distinct seasons: -cool (from October to late February) -hot (from late February to June) -wet (from June or July until September)

  25. *these periods depend on seasonal winds called monsoons -cool season – dry monsoon winds blow from north and northeast (from Himalaya)

  26. -hot season – warm temperatures heat the air, which rises and triggers a change in wind direction -wet season – moist ocean air from the Arabian Sea blows in from the south and southwest, bringing monsoon rains

  27. III. NATURAL DISASTERS -high temperatures allow farmers to produce crops, but they can also result in evaporation and dried-out, nutrient-poor soils A. Hot Season

  28. B. Wet Season -rainfall waters crops, but areas outside the monsoon path (Deccan Plateau and western Pakistan) receive little or no rainfall -monsoons may also cause flooding (especially in Bangladesh) which kill livestock and people and destroy homes and crops

  29. C. Cyclones -cyclones often form in this region due to low atmospheric pressure -they bring heavy winds and rain -in 1999, a cyclone struck Orissa, India and killed nearly 10,000 people and caused more than $20 million in damages