South Asia Geography Unit 8 (Chapters 24, 25 and 26)
The subcontinent • Subcontinent – a large landmass, slightly smaller than a continent. • Two tectonic plates, the Indian and Eurasian were forced together creating mountains by collision
Landforms • Mountains • Himalayas • Highest point in the world • Mt. Everest • Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountains are part of the Himalayan chain
Deccan Plateau • Large arid region between Western and Eastern Ghats (small mountain ranges)
Rivers • Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra • All have their sources in the Himalayas Both pictures show different views of the Ganges River, considered the greatest river of the Indian subcontinent
Many crops are grown in India. It is extremely necessary to grow significant quantities of food for their ever-expanding population. • Rivers support alluvial plains • Like the Nile, Indian rivers bring minerals and moisture to lands • Makes rich farmland • Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the most fertile farming regions in the world
Offshore islands • The Indian Subcontinent also contains two large island groups • Sri Lanka • The “teardrop” of the subcontinent
The Maldives • Another chain of islands, smaller than Sri Lanka • They are an archipelago • Island group
Iron ore from Pakistan Coal strip mining Indian-subcontinent natural resources • The subcontinent relies heavily on it’s land and water as resources • Also: • Forest for timber, plants and animals • Minerals, coal, oil and natural gas, iron ore
South Asia Climate • Monsoons (Seasonal) • Summer monsoon brings tons of rain • Very necessary to help support agriculture in South Asia • Winter Monsoon is a wind shift that brings dry air. • Himalayas • Man has tried to best Mt. Everest and other Himalayan slopes since the beginning of recorded history
CyclonesHugely destructive storms of circling wind and water that can submerge miles of coastline.
South Asia Human Geography • History • Originally South Asia was many small empires • Mauryan, Gupta (both Buddhist) and Mughal (Muslim) Empires held power at different times. • Colonialism • In 1500’s European traders came to South Asia.
Later the British (and a few others) colonized much of South Asia and controlled it for years. • Natives did not like colonial rule and protested. • Mohandas Gandhi began opposition movement • Based on non-violent resistance • Eventually Great Britain gave in • Granted Independence to India • August 14, 1947 • India is now the World’s largest democracy!
Religious Conflict • Religions • Many different religions, • Much of the violence due to religious differences • India/Pakistan conflict • India is mostly Hindu, Pakistan mostly Muslim. They fight over territory. • Kashmir – disputed land • They divided the land between Hindu’s and Muslims, naming the Muslim sections Pakistan. This was called partition.
What do Hindu’s believe? • Complex religion • Polytheistic • Believe in reincarnation • Idea that your soul returns to Earth many times • Karma – moral consequences of a persons actions in one life determine that person’s next life
Buddhism • Buddhism was born in South Asia • Now much more popular in Central Asia (China) • Buddhists believe in focusing on leading a good life, not material possessions. • Through meditation and good deeds they try to achieve nirvana (perfection of spirit) • This religion created by Siddartha (Buddha)
South Asia Economics • Most economic activities center on agriculture • Subsistence farming • Growing what your family needs to eat and survive, with little left over to sell • Many south Asian families are subsistence farmers • New Ideas • Land reform • Redistribute the land so that more people have access to good amounts, instead of just the wealthy five percent. • Green revolution • Introduced new farming techniques and crops to improve yield (how much product you get) • It has been working
Issues India Faces • Population explosion • India is a stage 2 country • Their population growth rate is fastest in the world • Will be most populous country by about 2015. • Problems come when you have that many citizens. • Poverty • Many of South Asia’s people live in poverty. • Caste System • System of social classes that is a cornerstone of Hinduism • You are restricted to your own social class your entire life. • With good Karma, you will move up in social classes in your other lifetimes. • Government is concerned with how this does not allow for personal betterment • The untouchable, or bottom caste, was done away with by the govt. but it is still part of life.