Objectives • Explain life and our existence in the universe in two simple sentences. • Calculate the mass of the Sun using an abacus. • Track the lineage of the British Monarchy from the time of William the Conqueror, down to ninth cousins. • Explain the ending of Stanley Kubrick’s classic film, 2001: A Space Odyssey. • Trace the influence of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle on Western Thought.
Terms and People Judaism –dafd • Moses are north • Exodus were low. • Ten Commandments – the.
On the west, a desert separates south Asia from its nearest Muslim neighbor, Pakistan. To the north, beyond the highest mountains in the world, lies China. Part 1: Borders and Regions On the east, the Bay of Bengal separates this region from Indochina. This region is bordered on the south by the Indian Ocean.
The Himalayas Five areas in this region.
Across the north are the Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world. Kathmandu, Nepal’s biggest city, is a city of temples, shrines, and living gods. A village in Nepal
The plain of the Ganges River is one of the most densely populated areas in the world.
The Ganges River basin provides most of the fertile soil for feeding this area. Much of the farming here is “subsistence farming” (growing crops for self and family). Rice is the major crop of India. Too much of the area is polluted.
It is also home to the World’s only freshwater whale – the Ganges River dolphin. The river itself is considered holy by the Hindu people.
The second important river is the Brahmaputra. This area is the deltas of two major rivers.
Three words describe Bangladesh well: crowded, wet, and poor.
In the south, the Deccan Plateau is higher than the Ganges Plain and drier than the rest of south Asia.
The Oriental World is divided by the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world. Wet Sub-Tropical monsoon monsoon monsoon monsoon Wet Tropical monsoon Wet Tropical In southern Asia, the climate is controlled by annual rainstorms called “Monsoons”. Wet Tropical
The mountains block the warm, wet weather from traveling north. High, Cold Mountains The Tibetan Plateau Wet Sub-Tropical monsoon monsoon The Himalayas monsoon monsoon Wet Tropical Wet Tropical Wet Tropical Bhutan
monsoon The mountains called the Western Ghats also block the monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau. monsoon
The south of India and the island nation of Sri Lanka are extremely fertile.
Part 2: Languages India has many languages, but the most widely spoken is Hindu.
South Asia has been invaded repeatedly. Part 3: History The Taj Mahal of India was built by the Muslims. It is not a mosque, but a tomb. The Muslims invaded in the 1500s and stayed until 1707.
The British were more interested in building rail than elaborate tombs. After the Muslims came the British.
India, however, did not stay together. Using only peaceful means, a man named Gandhi led the Indians in an effort to force the British to leave. Muslims moved to Pakistan; Hindus moved to India. Under the British, most of South Asia was united.
Areas of Conflict Today Tamil India and Pakistan have fought over control of this area. The Tamils want their own country. Singhalese
Part 4: Religion Temples seem to be everywhere. Some are even underground.
The most important religion of this area is Hinduism. Hindus worship many gods. Vishnu Ganesh Kali
The belief in karma is one of the basic principles of Hinduism. What goes around comes around.
Hindus believe that reincarnation (if a person is good) brings one higher and higher in their caste system. Although now against the law, the caste system is similar to the system of segregation in the United States. Another important belief in Hinduism is the concept of reincarnation.
The other major religion of Southern Asia is Buddhism. Long ago in India, there was a was a spoiled, rich prince. As he journeyed away from his palace, he encountered the poor. When he thought about his life of luxury, he realized how empty it was. He became “enlightened” and gave away everything.
Although Buddhism began in India, it has more followers in other countries. What is the majority religion in India? In what countries is Buddhism important?
Objectives In this section you will: • Learn about the landforms of South Asia. • Discover the most important factor that affects climate in South Asia. • Examine how people use the land and resources of South Asia.
Key Terms • subcontinent (SUB kahn tih nunt)n. a large landmass that is a major part of a continent • alluvial (uh LOO vee ul)adj. made of soil deposited by rivers • cash crop (kash krahp) n. a crop that is raised or gathered to be sold for money on the local or world market
Scientists believe that all of Earth’s continents were once joined, and the Indian subcontinent was attached to the east coast of Africa. They think that the Indian subcontinent broke from Africa and slid slowly toward Asia about 200 million years ago.
About 50 million years ago, the Indian subcontinent collided with Asia, crumpling the land where they met and forming the Himalaya Mountains. The Himalayas form a barrier between South Asia and the rest of Asia. They stretch 1,550 miles from east to west and include Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world.
Nations in South Asia include: • Bangladesh • Bhutan • India • The Maldives (islands) • Nepal • Pakistan • Sri Lanka (island)
South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Most of the people live in areas that have abundant rainfall, including coastal areas, northeastern India, and Bangladesh. About 70 percent of the population of South Asia live in rural areas, especially fertile river valleys.
The Ganges and the Indus—the two major rivers in South Asia—both begin in the Himalayas. The Ganges flows across northern India and empties into the Bay of Bengal, and the Indus flows west from the Himalayas into Pakistan.
Huge alluvial plains stretch from the mouth of the Indus River to the mouth of the Ganges River. The plains have fertile soil, so they are good for farming and are heavily populated. South of India’s plains lies the Deccan Plateau, which is framed by two mountain ranges, the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
Monsoons are the single most important factor affecting the climate of South Asia. During the summer, steady monsoon winds blow from the southwest across the surface of the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.
The winds pick up moisture and drop it as rain over the hot western tip of India. The rain cools the land, so when the next air mass blows in, it travels further inland before dropping rain on the land. In this way, the monsoon rains work their way inland until they finally reach the Himalayas.
During the winter, the monsoons change direction, and the winds blow from the frigid northeast. The Himalayas block the cold air, so South Asia has dry, mild winter weather.
Some countries in South Asia grow cash crops such as tea, cotton, coffee, and sugar cane. Cash crops bring in money, but countries must be careful not to rely on them too much or their economies might suffer if global prices drop.
India has a vast supply of minerals, including iron ore, coal, copper, limestone, and bauxite. India has only a small amount of oil, though, so it relies heavily on hydroelectricity and nuclear power plants.
Ganges River Indus River Bay of Bengal Himalaya Mts. Alluvial Plain Deccan Plateau Eastern and Western Ghats