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  1. MLA Modern Language Association

  2. Font: Times New Roman- Size: 12 points- Double-space the entire research paper- Leave one space after a period •

  3. In-Text Citations • The reader needs to know the source: who wrote it and where can I find it? Thus, you list the author and page number. If there is no page number, simply list the author’s last name. If there is no author, list a shortened version of the article title. • Example “Most people lose in most competitive encounters, and it's obvious why that causes self-doubt. But even winning doesn't build character; it just lets a child gloat temporarily” (Kohn).

  4. In your works cited it will look like this . . . Kohn, Alfie. “The Case Against Competition.” Working Mother., Sept. 1987. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. You could also say . . . According to Alfie Kohn, celebrated education critic and author, “Most people lose in most competitive encounters, and it's obvious why that causes self-doubt. But even winning doesn't build character; it just lets a child gloat temporarily.” Because you mentioned Kohn before the quote, there is no need to put his name in parentheses at the end.

  5. In-Text Citation Options • Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (source—either page number or website). • Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). • Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.

  6. No Known Author • When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. • Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (e.g. articles) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire websites) and provide a page number. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming" 6). "The Impact of Global Warming in North America." GLOBAL WARMING: Early Signs. 1999. Web. 23 Mar. 2009.

  7. Multiple Authors • For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76). The authors state "Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights" (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).

  8. Multiple Authors • For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. or list all the last names. Jones et al. counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4). Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (Jones et al. 4).

  9. Citing Indirect Source • Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example: Ravitchargues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Weisman 259).

  10. Block Quotes A quotation that would require more than four lines of your text should be in the form of a block quotation with the following features. • Begin on a new line. • Indent one inch from the left margin. • Do not use quotation marks. • Include the page number(s) in parentheses after the period at the end of the quotation. • Unlike in-text quotations, where the citation is part of the sentence, the citation of a block quotation floats outside. Thus, the period ending the last sentence of the block follows the last word, and the parenthetical reference stands on its own. • Because it is set off on its own and is clearly a quotation, no quotation marks are needed. Often the introductory lead-in is a sentence followed by a colon. • (Remember that a colon is a handy punctuation mark meaning, “Here is an explanation of what I just said.”)

  11. In her study of our literary heritage, professor Jane Doe reminds us that in many cases, we came close to not having some works at all: Many are the tales of the discovery of unique manuscripts of what turned out to be precious works of literary greatness. Poetry used as stuffing for steamer trunks or sofas; novels hidden in the walls of a garret in some forgotten, soon-to-be- demolished building; classics, all but scraped off the parchment, accidentally discovered underneath the lesser words in a palimpsest—we do not know how lucky we are.(233) Notes: 1. In the research paper, the block quotation is double spaced, as is the rest of the text of the paper. 2. You should generally limit the length of block quotations to six to eight lines or so, in order to avoid losing your reader’s focus or interest. And remember, quoting at length soon looks like padding, because it usually is. If you have an really good quote that is long, consider breaking it up and discussing it in parts.

  12. For all your other questions refer to these sources . . . • • •

  13. Work Cited • Alphabetize by author’s last name • Times New Roman 12 • Double-spaced • Never indent the first line • Go to this website, click on one of the citation sites and enter in the information. It will create the MLA citation for you

  14. Check your understanding . . .

  15. When documenting one author in reference in a text, which is correct? a. This point has been argued before (Frye 197). b. This point has been argued before. (Glenn Frye, 197) c. This point has been argued before. (Frye 197) d. This point has been argued before (Frye, 197).

  16. When documenting one author by name in a text, which is correct? a. Frye has argued this point before (Frye 197). b. Frye has argued this point before. (197). c. Frye has argued this point before. (Frye, 197). d. Frye has argued this point before (197).

  17. TRUE/FALSE You should not use the author’s last name in the citation if the author’s name appears in the text.

  18. TRUE/FALSE When you use quotations in the text, you place the citation before the last quotation mark.

  19. TRUE/FALSE You only use block quotes when quoting more than 4 lines of text.

  20. Which of the following is true about block quotes: a. The entire block quote is indented b. Only used when author is mentioned in the text c. Page number at end is outside the period d. Quotation marks are not used e. All of the above

  21. Which is the correct way to cite a website? a. The Modern Language Association was founded in 1883 ( b. According to the Modern Language Association’s (MLA) website, the MLA was founded in 1883 ( c. Both

  22. TRUE/FALSE Author’s names are listed alphabetically on the Works Cited page.

  23. TRUE/FALSE You should capitalize every word in a title.

  24. TRUE/FALSE Quotation marks should be placed around titles of shorter works (articles, poems, short stories, essays).

  25. TRUE/FALSE Underline titles of long, full-length works. Full-length works are things like novels, plays, epic poems, and text books.

  26. TRUE/FALSE MLA prefers Times New Roman font.

  27. TRUE/FALSE Alphabetize your Works Cited page including “A”, “An”, or “The” as the first word of a title.