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Negotiations

Negotiations

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Negotiations

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  1. Negotiations

  2. Conflict • Conflict occurs when • parties disagree over • substantive issues or when • emotional antagonisms • create friction Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  3. Conflict • Conflict occurs when • parties disagree over • substantive issuesor when • emotional antagonisms • create friction Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  4. Substantive issues • Goals • Values • Allocation of Resources • Methods • Ethics Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  5. Substantive issues • Consider issues in health care • * patient care • * administration Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  6. Emotional antagonisms • Anger • Mistrust • Dislike • Fear • Resentment Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  7. Emotional antagonisms • Pride • Invest emotion in a position • win/lose • save face • support friends • leverage by personality Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  8. Emotional antagonisms • Examples in health care • political hierarchy Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  9. Levels of Conflict • Intrapersonal • Interpersonal • Intergroup • Interorganization Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  10. Types • Horizontal • Vertical • Role Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  11. Positive / Constructive Negative / Destructive Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  12. Conflict Moderate is constructive Impact on Performance + - Low High Intensity Schermerhorn; Ch. 18

  13. Stages • Conflict antecedents

  14. Stages • Perceived conflict

  15. Stages • Felt conflict

  16. Stages • Manifest conflict • = openly expressed in behavior

  17. Environment of Conflict • Participants • Timing / Work cycles / Schedules • Day of the week • Hour of the day • Preexisting stress levels

  18. What is in the bag?

  19. What is the best way for people to deal with their differences? Create Options • ‘Getting to Yes’ Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  20. Where do we find ’differences’? __________________ __________________ __________________ Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  21. “The Problem” Don’t bargain over positions Examples provided CustomerShopkeeper Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  22. “The Method” Separate the people from the problem Every Negotiator has two kinds of interests: • The Substance • The Relationship Separate the relationship from the substance TenantLandlady Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  23. “The Method” • Perception • Discuss perceptions • Look for opportunities to act inconsistently with their perceptions • Engage in ‘Face-saving’ • Make sure your proposals are consistent with their values. Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  24. “The Method” • Emotion • Recognize emotions (all sides) • Consider emotions legitimate and acknowledge • Allow emotions to be displayed • Don’t react to the emotions • Use symbolic gestures Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  25. “The Method” • Communication • Use active listening • Acknowledge what is said but do not use paraphrasing to restate their perception • Restate their position positively • Speak about yourself not them • Speak for a purpose • Engage in ‘Face-saving’ • Make sure your proposals are consistent with their values. Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  26. “The Method” Focus on the Interests, Not Positions • Ask ‘Why?’ and ‘Why Not?’ • Consider the impact on my interests: • Will I lose or gain political support? • Will colleagues criticize or praise me? • Impact on the group’s interests: • What will be the short-term consequences? Long term? • What will be the economic consequences? • What will be the effect on outside supporters and public opinion? • Will the precedent be good or bad? • Will making this decision prevent doing something better? • Is the action consistent with our principles? Ethical? • Can I do it later if I want? Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  27. “The Method” Focus on the Interests, Not Positions • The most powerful interests are basic human needs. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  28. “The Method” Focus on the Interests, Not Positions • The most powerful interests are basic human needs. • Security • Economic Well Being • A Sense of Belonging • Recognition • Control Over One’s Life Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  29. “The Method” Invent Options for Mutual Gain • Not inventing is the norm • Judgement hinders evaluation • People often approach this by narrowing the options not broadening them. • Develop a solution that also appeals to the self-interest of the other party • Process: • Separate inventing from deciding • Add a brainstorming session • Involve a facilitator • Use the ‘Circle Chart’ Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  30. What might be done What is wrong Step III. Approaches Step II. Analysis • Diagnose the problem • Sort symptoms into categories • Suggest causes • Observe what is lacking • Note barriers • What are the possible strategies or prescriptions? • What are some theoretical cures? • Generate broad ideas about what might be done. In Theory Step I. Problem Step IV. Action Ideas • What’s wrong? • What are current symptoms? • What are disliked facts contrasted with a preferred solution? • What might be done? • What specific steps might be taken to deal with the problem? In the real world Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  31. “The Method” Insist on Using Objective Criteria • Developing Objective Criteria • Fair Standards • Fair Procedures Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  32. The Big What Ifs What if they are more powerful? Develop your BATNA Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  33. The Big What Ifs What if they won’t pay? Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991

  34. The Big What Ifs What if they use dirty tricks? Fisher R, Ury W: Getting to Yes, 1991