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College English ( Integrated Course 4 )

College English ( Integrated Course 4 )

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College English ( Integrated Course 4 )

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  1. College English (Integrated Course 4) Unit 1: Fighting with the Forces of Nature Text A: The Icy Defender Napoleon Bonaparte

  2. I. Pre-Reading: Proverbs and Quotations Understand the following proverbs and quotations: 1. Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed. ----Francis Bacon 2. An army marches on its stomach. 3. He that forecasts all perils will never sail the sea. 4. All delays are dangerous in war. ----John Drydon 5. In war, whichever side may call itself the victor, there are no winners, but all are losers. ----Nerille Chamberlain

  3. I. Pre-Reading: Proverbs and Quotations 6. The man who has made up his mind to win will never say “impossible.” ---Napoleon Bonaparte 7. I succeeded because I willed it; I never hesitated. ---Napoleon Bonaparte 8. To really understand a man we must judge him in misfortune. ---Napoleon Bonaparte 9. He who fears being conquered is sure of defeat. ---Napoleon Bonaparte

  4. II. Cultural Notes 1. Background Information Throughout the history of mankind, there have been many conquerors. Chengis Khan ( spent his entire life conquering neighboring peoples and expanding the Mongolian Empire. Many Roman Emperors did the same for the Roman empire—so much so that at one time they ruled modern-day Great Britain. Both the Mongolian and Roman Empires had their rise and fall in the distant past.

  5. II. Cultural Notes Yet if we want to examine conquerors, there is no need to go back that far. In 1812, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Russia in a war of conquest which ended in failure. More than a century later, Adolf Hitler launched a massive military campaign against the Soviet Union, which again ended in failure.

  6. 2. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)( II. Cultural Notes

  7. II. Cultural Notes Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)

  8. 3. The Battle of Waterloo( II. Cultural Notes Final and decisive action of the Napoleonic Wars, that effectively ended French domination of the European continent and brought about drastic changes in the political boundaries and the power balance of Europe. Fought on June 18, 1815, near Waterloo, in what is now Belgium, the battle ranks as a great turning point in modern history.

  9. 4. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)( II. Cultural Notes German political and military leader and one of the 20th century’s most powerful dictators. He converted Germany into a fully militarized society and launched World War 2 in 1939.He hoped to conquer the world, and for a time dominated most of Europe and much of North Africa. He instituted sterilization and euthanasia measures to enforce his idea of racial purity among the German people and slaughtered millions of Jews and other nations.

  10. 5. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) ( II. Cultural Notes General secretary of the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Under his leadership the USSR was built into a modern economic and military power that repelled Hitler’s armies in World War 2 and rivaled the United States during the Cold War period.

  11. 5. Siege of Leningrad II. Cultural Notes

  12. 6. Stalingrad II. Cultural Notes

  13. II. Cultural Notes 7. World War II (1939-1945) (

  14. II. Cultural Notes 7.World War II (1939-1945) A war whose European operations took place between the Axis powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) and the Allies (Britain, France, and later the USSR and the USA). China and other countries were also involved in the war, fighting against the aggression of Japan in Asia. The war in Europe started when Germany, under Adolf Hitler and the Nazis, invaded and took control of some European countries and Allies wanted to prevent German power from growing in this way. Britain declared war on

  15. II. Cultural Notes Germany in September 1939 when German troops entered Poland, and soon afterwards Winston Churchill, who in Britain is closely associated with the Allies’ victory in the war, became the British Prime Minister. In 1940 German air force attacked Britain repeatedly but was not successful, mainly because of the British victory in the Battle of Britain. In 1941 Germany invade Russia and Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, an action which brought the US into the war. In 1942 Japan expanded its control of Asia but

  16. II. Cultural Notes was later checked by Allied forces in the Pacific. In the same year, at the Battle of El Alamein, Allied forces began to defeat Germany and Italy in northern Africa. In 1943 the Allies landed in Italy and Russia began to advance on Germany from the east. In June 1944 the Allies invaded northern Europe with the Normandy landings and began to defeat Germany in Europe. The war ended in May 1945 when the Allies took control of Germany. Hitler killed himself, and Japan was defeated a few months later.

  17. II. Cultural Notes 8. Chronology of World War II

  18. II. Cultural Notes 8. Chronology of World War II

  19. III. Text Organization

  20. IV. Comprehension Questions Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

  21. IV. Comprehension Questions

  22. IV. Comprehension Questions Answer the following questions according to the text: 1. What does “the icy defender” refer to? The “icy defender” refers to the severe winter of Moscow. 2. What did Napoleon expect when he assembled his army to attack Russia? He expected a quick victory, predicted the conquest of Russia in five weeks. 3. What did the Russians do in the face of Napoleon’s offensive? What strategy did the Russians adopt? The Russians retreated eastward, burning their crops and homes as they went.

  23. IV. Comprehension Questions 4. What did Napoleon discover after he occupied Moscow? He found that the occupation of the city was an empty victory. 5. What happened to Napoleon’s army when it was retreating from Moscow? The Russians launched hit-and-run attacks on the French. 6. How many soldiers were there left after the army limped to Vilna? Less than one hundred thousand were left. 7. What did Napoleon do when Paris was captured? He abdicated and went into exile.

  24. College English (Integrated Course 4) Unit 1: Fighting with the Forces of Nature Text A: The Icy Defender Napoleon Bonaparte

  25. V. Text Analysis

  26. V. Text Analysis

  27. V. Text Analysis

  28. VI. Language Study (I) Introductory Paragraph 1. In the case of : as far as…is concerned --The rise in interest rate will be disastrous in the case of small firms. --Formal training will take at least 3 years in the case of interior decoration. 2. stand/get/be in the way:prevent from doing sth. --Many teachers complain that they can’t make any improvement in teaching methods as the existing exam system is in the way. --Fierce competition keeps getting in the way of kids’ development.

  29. VI. Language Study (I) 3. raw (L5):cold and wet; not cooked, refined, processed, organized or analyzed --The events took place on a raw February morning. --He feared eating raw fish at the dinner party. --Industrial plants processed the raw material into finished products for export and for domestic consumption. 4. launch (L7):start; send on its course --The company is to launch a promotion campaign next month to increase its turnover. --The Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite into space on Oct. 4,1957.

  30. VI. Language Study (I) 5. campaign (L10):a series of military operations or planned activities with a particular aim --Hitler’s advisers tried to persuade him to avoid the risks of a winter campaign in the Soviet Union and wait until spring. 6. Come to the aid of sb.(L11):help or aid Also see: come to one’s aid/rescue --The long-expected rain came to the aid of the stranded ships in the river. --The police came to their rescue 15 minutes after they called 110.

  31. VI. Language Study (I) 7. efficient (L15):able to work well or producing a satisfactory result without wasting time or resources --Remote terminals in the home, connected to data banks, make the home the most efficient place to work in many cases. --To cut back on fossil fuels, we should build more efficient cars.

  32. VI. Language Study (I) 7. conquest (L16):conquering, defeat --The year 1939 had witnessed the conquest of Poland by Germany. --Hitler assumed the conquest of USSR would be simple. 8. Decisive (L19):producing a definite result or conclusion; having or showing the ability to decide quickly --Most of the decisive land campaigns of World War I occurred on the continent of Europe. --The adoption of the euro is widely viewed as a decisive step toward a single European government.

  33. VI. Language Study (I) 9. retreat (L21):move back or withdraw when faced with danger or difficulty --After a fierce battle, the troops retreated southward. --We adopted the following strategies: when the enemy advances, we retreat; when they retreat, we pursue. 10. be/get bogged down (L22):be unable to make progress --Most of the tanks were bogged down because of mechanical defects and inexperienced crews. --The local government got bogged down in problems of how to handle the emission of hazardous chemicals by industrial facilities.

  34. College English (Integrated Course 4) Unit 1: Fighting with the Forces of Nature Text A: The Icy Defender Napoleon Bonaparte

  35. VI. Language Study (I) 11. engage (L24):begin fighting with sb; take part in or do; occupy or attract sb’s interest, etc. --The commander ordered the soldiers to engage the enemy immediately. --I have no time to engage in gossip. --We failed to engage any active support for our project. engage (sb.) in sth.:(cause to) take part in sth. --The two countries are currently engaged in lengthy trade negotiations. --The teacher tried to engage the shy boy in conversation.

  36. VI. Language Study (I) 12. be faced with (L27):have to deal with --The assistants were faced with the huge task of listing all the books. --I am faced with the awful job of breaking the news to the boy’s family. 13. crucial (L27):very important (followed by to) --Amazingly, our soccer team won the victory in the crucial final game. --Improved consumer confidence is crucial to economic recovery.

  37. VI. Language Study (I) 14. take a gamble (L30):take a risk --The company took a gamble by cutting the price of their products, and it paid off. --I think she’s taking a gamble investing all her money in stocks. 15. press on/ahead (L30):continue doing sth. in a determined way --Our school authorities are keen to press on with educational reform. --Organizers of the strike are determined to press on.

  38. VI. Language Study (I) 16. occupation (L36):the seizure and control of a country or areas;one’s trade, profession, or business --During the Japanese occupation of China, millions of innocent Chinese people were killed by Japanese soldiers. --Many schools have struggled to meet the educational requirements of new technology-based occupations.

  39. VI. Language Study (I) 17. bide one’s time (L39):wait patiently for a chance --His political rivals are biding their time for an attack on his policies. --He bided his time until Harvard University offered him a professorship. 18. minus (L40):below zero; made less by; slightly lower than the mark stated --Tomorrow’s temperature will be as low as minus ten degrees centigrade. --I got B minus in the final examination which made me very upset.

  40. VI. Language Study (I) 19. drag on (L50):move slowly and with effort; continue endlessly and tediously --These compensation cases have already dragged on for one year. --How much longer is the meeting going to drag on? 20. stroke (L54):any of a series of repeated movements; single successful or effective action or occurrence; blow --I saw a chance of solving all my problems at a stroke. --He drove in a nail with one stroke of the hammer. --He won a car in the lottery last week. That’s his first stroke of good luck.

  41. VI. Language Study (I) 21. at the cost of (L55):with the loss of --Berman saved Johnson at the cost of his own life. --The local government developed its economy but at the cost of environment. 22. limp (L56):walk with difficulty, especially when one foot or leg is hurt --That dog must be hurt—it’s limping. --I injured my ankle and had to limp. --During the race he fell down but he kept to limp on.

  42. VI. Language Study (I) 23. weaken (L58):(cause to) become weak or weaker --The Asian financial crisis severely weakened some countries. --Pneumonia often proves fatal to people with a weakened immune system. c.f.: adj. + en >>>>> verb --sharpen, soften, widen, harden, redden, tighten, loosen, ……

  43. VI. Language Study (I) 24. alliance (L60):a union or an association formed for mutual benefit --NATO is considered as the most powerful military alliance in modern history. --Japan and Germany made their formal alliance in 1940. 25. declaration (L65):formally announcing; a formal announcement (followed by of) --The Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941 without a declaration of war. --The opening speeches sounded like declarations of war.

  44. VI. Language Study (I) 26. invasion (L66):an entering or being entered by an attacking military force --The country remained free from invasion for 60 years. --On Hitler’s orders, the invasion of Poland began on September 1,1939. 27. catch sb. off guard (L71):take sb. by surprise --The invitation to his wedding caught me off guard. --The manager didn’t know what to say, it was clear that my question had caught him off guard.

  45. VI. Language Study (I) 28. instruct (L71):give orders or directions to somebody --The family has instructed solicitors to sue Thomson for compensation. --The professor instructed us that we had one month to conduct the project. --He instructed family members in nursing techniques.

  46. College English (Integrated Course 4) Unit 1: Fighting with the Forces of Nature Text A: The Icy Defender Napoleon Bonaparte

  47. VI. Language Study (I) 29. render (L73):cause (sb.\sth) to be in a specified condition --Hundreds of people were rendered homeless by the earthquake. --The drug will render the tiger harmless for up to two hours. --He was rendered unconscious by a blow on the back of the neck.

  48. VI. Language Study (I) 30. casualty (L75):a person who is killed or injured in war or in an accident --The precise number of casualties in yesterday’s bomb explosion is not known. 31. close in on/around (L76):come near to, esp. in order to attack from several directions; surround --Hitler committed suicide as Soviet forces were closing in on Berlin. --Right after the suicide explosion, Israeli troops began to close in on the Palestinian city. --The soccer fans closed in on the umpire when the game was over.

  49. VI. Language Study (I) 32. die from/of (L79) :have as the cause of death --Some animals died of starvation in the snow. All the plants were dying from lack of rain. 33. run out (L79):be used up --I’ll go shopping for some stationery. The copying paper has run out. --Natural resources will run out someday. The human beings have to look for substitutes. cf. (sth.) run out (man) run out of sth. --We are running out of fuel.

  50. VI. Language Study (I) 34. siege (L81):a military operation in which an army tries to capture a town, etc. by surrounding it and stopping the supply of food, etc. to the people inside. --We must do everything possible to lift the siege. --They are hopeful of bringing the siege to a peaceful conclusion. --The city was under siege for six months.