TCP/IP Protocol Suite and IP Addressing CCNA 1 v3 – Module 9 NESCOT CATC
Introduction to TCP/IP U.S. DoD created the TCP/IP model. Provides reliable data transmission to any destination under any circumstance. TCP/IP model has become the Internet standard. TCP/IP v4 was standardized in 1981. IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long dotted decimal. IPv6 (IPng) standardized in 1992 by IETF. IPv6 addresses are 128 bits long written in hexadecimal with colons separating 16-bit fields. Leading zeros can be omitted in each field. Example: 3FFE:1900:6545:3:230:F804:7EBF:12C2
Application Layer FTP File Transfer Protocol Handles high-level protocols, issues of representation, encoding, and dialog control. Protocols at this level include: Connectionless service using UDP. Used on routers to transfer configuration files and IOS images. Faster than FTP. NFS Network File System Administers the transmission of e-mail over computer networks. Only provides support for plaintext. Telnet Terminal emulation Used to monitor and control network devices, to manage configurations, statistics collection, performance, and security DNS Domain Name System NESCOT CATC
Transport Layer • Transmission Control Protocol – connection oriented • User Datagram Protocol - connectionless • Transport services include all the following services: • Provides transport services from the source host to the destination host. • Constitutes a logical connection between two endpoints. • Two protocols: NESCOT CATC
Internet Protocol IP Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP Address Resolution Protocol ARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol RARP Internet Layer Best path determination and packet switching occur at this layer. The following protocols operate at the TCP/IP Internet layer: • IP defines packets and addressing scheme, transfers data between Internet layer and network access layer and routes packets to remote hosts. • Calling IP an unreliable protocol simply means that IP does not perform error checking and correction. These are handled by upper layer protocols.
Network Access Layer • Also called the host-to-network layer. • Concerned with making a physical link to the network media. • Includes LAN and WAN technology details, and all the details contained in the OSI physical and data-link layers. • Drivers for software applications and modem cards operate here. • Protocols such as Serial Line Interface Protocol and Point to Point Protocol provide modems network access. • Intricate interplay of hardware, software, and transmission-medium. • Maps IP addresses to MAC addresses. • Encapsulates IP packets into frames. Network Access layer protocols include: Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, SLIP, PPP, FDDI, ATM, Frame-Relay, SMDS, ARP, Proxy ARP, RARP. NESCOT CATC
IP Addressing Addresses IP address Layer 3 • __________ allow one computer to locate another computer on a network. • Each computer in a TCP/IP network must be given a unique ____________. IP addresses operate at __________. • Each IP address is written as four parts separated by dots. Each part of the address is called an ________ because it is made up of ___________. • Dotted decimal notation is easier for people to understand than ____________________. octet eight bits binary ones and zeros NESCOT CATC
IP addresses are divided into classes A,B and C to define large, medium, and small networks. The Class D address class was created to enable multicasting. IETFreserves Class E addresses for its own research. Every IP address has two parts: • Network • Host NESCOT CATC
Example: Certain host addresses are reserved and cannot be assigned to devices on a network: Network address – Used to identify the network itself • An IP address that has binary 0s in all host bit positions is reserved for the network address Broadcast address – Used for broadcasting packets to all the devices on a network • Broadcast IP addresses end with binary 1s in the entire host part of the address. Broadcast Address 184.108.40.206 Broadcast Address 220.127.116.11 NESCOT CATC
IANA manages the remaining supply of Public IP addresses to ensure that duplication does not occur. Public IP addresses are unique and must be obtained from an ISP or a registry. Private IP addresses are a solution to the problem of the exhaustion of public IP addresses. Addresses that fall within these ranges are not routed on the Internet backbone: Connecting a network using private addresses to the Internet requires translation of the private addresses to public addresses (NAT). IP Private Addresses NESCOT CATC
Subnetting Example: All three segments are part of the Class B network: Address space 18.104.22.168 Default network mask 255.255.0.0 • Subnetting a network means to use the subnet mask to break a large network up into smaller, more efficient and manageable subnets. • With subnetting, the network is not limited to Class A, B, or C masks • To create a subnet address, borrow bits from the host field and designate them as the subnet field. • There are three parts to subnet addresses: • Network • Subnet • Host Individual subnets are created: Subnet mask 255.255.255.0 NESCOT CATC
Obtaining an IP Address Two methods to assign IP addresses: • Static • Manually configured on the host by Network Administrator • Can be used for hosts on small, infrequently changing networks • Assign to printers, servers, and routers • Dynamic • Host discovers its IP address by asking another network device • Using RARP, BOOTP or DHCP RARP • Reverse ARP associates a known MAC address with an IP address. • RARP requests are broadcast onto the LAN and are responded to by the RARP server (usually a router). • RARP uses the same packet format as ARP. • The RARP packet format has an empty source IP addresses field, and destination MAC address set to FFFFFFFFFFFF. • Workstation running RARP have codes in ROM that start the process.
Bootstrap Protocol only requires a single packet exchange to obtain IP information. BOOTP packets can include: • IP address • Router address • Server address • Vendor-specific information. Network administrator creates a file specifying parameters for each device. Each host must have a BOOTP profile with an IP address assignment. No two profiles can have the same IP address. BOOTP uses UDP to carry messages. BOOTP BootP process: Host sends a broadcast IP packet - destination 255.255.255.255. BOOTP server receives the broadcast and then sends back a broadcast. Client finds its own MAC address in the destination address field of the server’s broadcast and accepts the IP address and other information. NESCOT CATC
Discover • Offer Request Acknowledge DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is BOOTP’s successor. Host can obtain IP address dynamically without a network administrator having to set up individual profiles. Range of IP addresses is defined on a DHCP server. Four part process: DHCP Offer includes IP address, default-gateway, subnet mask and lease information. DHCP allows users to be mobile. DHCP leases an IP address to a device and then reclaims that IP address for another user after the first user releases it. DHCP offers a one to many ratio of IP addresses. NESCOT CATC
Yes No ARP Address Resolution Protocol maps IP to MAC addresses. ARP automatically obtains MAC addresses on local segment. Proxy ARP provides the MAC address of an intermediate device for transmission outside the LAN. ARP tables are stored in RAM and maintained automatically on each device. When a network device wants to send data across the network, it uses information from the ARP table. There are two ways that devices can gather MAC addresses: Monitoring traffic occuring on the local network segment. Broadcasting an ARP request