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1 st Workshop and 4 th Meeting Expert Panel on Crown Condition Assessment Helsing Ø re, Denmark February 3 – 6, 2003

1 st Workshop and 4 th Meeting Expert Panel on Crown Condition Assessment Helsing Ø re, Denmark February 3 – 6, 2003 Phenology and Meteorology within the EU/ICP Forests Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems (Level II) Teja Preuhsler and Egbert Beuker

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1 st Workshop and 4 th Meeting Expert Panel on Crown Condition Assessment Helsing Ø re, Denmark February 3 – 6, 2003

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  1. 1st Workshop and 4th Meeting Expert Panel on Crown Condition Assessment HelsingØre, Denmark February 3 – 6, 2003 Phenology and Meteorology within the EU/ICP Forests Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems (Level II) Teja Preuhsler and Egbert Beuker Bavarian State Institute of Forestry, Freising, Germany Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, Finland

  2. Trees and stands, and especially their response on man made influencing factors of air pollution and climate change, are one aim of the EU/ICP Forests programme for Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems

  3. Objectives of the Meteorological Monitoring The objective of the monitoring of meteorological parametersat Level II plots is to provide local, inside forest area information on these basic driving and influencing factors for forest ecosystems, concerning e.g. the transportation and deposition of air pollutants to forest stands, as well as the water- and element cycles, the vitality and growth and also the crown condition of trees

  4. Phenology is broadly defined as the study of the visible life cycle events. In forests the knowledge about the timing and duration of certain life events provides valuable information about possible effects of climate fluctuations and changes on trees, as well as for explaining the actual condition of the trees themselves. Within the aims of the Level II monitoring program, Forest Phenology is defined as the systematic observation and recording of - the biotic and abiotic (e.g. damaging) events and phenomena - the yearly development stages of forest trees Phenology within the EU/ICP Forests Program

  5. crown condition (annual) meteorology phenology (15 minutes) (occurrence) deposition foliar composition (1 week) (annual / 2 yaers) litter (monthly) througfall and stemflow growth (30 minutes / 1 week) (annual / 5 yaers) ground vegetation (annual) soil condition soil solution soil moisture (10 years ) (2 - 4 weeks) (30 minutes) stand and site characteristics (unique) Program for the Intensive Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems Raspe, 2002

  6. Main objective of phenological observation at the level II plots is to provide supplementary and complementary information on the status and development of forest tree condition during the year. The value of such information is enhanced when phenological data are evaluated in combination with the parameters of the other data collected on Level II plots - in particular meteorological, deposition, soil solution, crown condition and growth parameters. Objectives of the Phenological Observation

  7. to determine the course of the annual development stages of forest trees on the intensive monitoring plots, in order to explain possible changes in the timing of these stages (starting time, length of period and magnitude) in relation to environmental factors of natural and/or anthropogenic origin, to utilise this knowledge in interpreting observed changes in tree condition (e.g. crown condition, growth, nutritional situation) ______________________________________ The objectives will be achieved at a plot level (Extensive), and at an individual tree level (Intensive) Additional Objectives of Phenological Monitoring

  8. At plot level, the most obvious effects of biotic and abiotic (damaging) events and phenological phenomena On level II plots (and/or their buffer zone) with any continuous measurements (e.g. meteorological observations, deposition or soil solution measurements) The frequency coincide with the collection of deposition samples, soil solution or meteodata Program of Extensive Phenology (1)

  9. Effects and phenological phenomena - “flushing”, “colour changes”, “leaf/needle fall” - significant signs of leaf or crown damage - other damage (breakage, uprooted trees, …) Quantitative assessment - “no”, “infrequent”, “common”, “abundant”, “total” (“absent”, “1-33%”, “34-66%”, “67-99%”, “100%”) Suspected causes of damage -biotic (by insects, diseases, game, …) - abiotic (by frost, wind, hail, fire, lightning, …) Easily to be doneby the person in charge for the routine activity at the plot (“technical service”) Program of Extensive Phenology (2)

  10. At single tree level: Visual observations on individual trees of the major species or group of species and on a limited set of phenological phases On those level II plots and/or their buffer zone with continuous meteorological monitoring Time consuming, needing well trained staff: better in depth observations on a small number of plots At least Weekly observation during the concerned pheno-phases of the species Quality assurance is important >> training courses Program of Intensive Phenology (1)

  11. Concentrate on a limited set of phases CONIFERSBROAD-LEAVED SPECIES Needle appearance Leaf unfolding Lammas shoots Secondary flushing Flowering Flowering Autumn colouring Leaf death and leaf fall Quantitative assessment - Flowering phases: “absent”, “present” - Needle appearance, leaf unfolding, autumn colouring and leaf fall: “absent”, “1-33%”, “34-66%”, “67-99%”, “100%” - Shedding of green leaves caused by hail, windstorm, late frost, insects, …: “absent”, “slight“, “moderate”, “severe” Program of Intensive Phenology (2)

  12. Suspected causes of damage like extensive phenology Selection of sample trees - 10 to 20 trees per species in a plot - trees with crown condition assessments - crown, respectively its relevant part, visible through all year (the best: from outside the plot) - if necessary, additional trees in the buffer zone - at least periodical measurement of height and DBH, better continuous DBH-measurement - no trees for leaf/needle sampling and analysis Program of Intensive Phenology (3)

  13. Litterfall sampling provides quantitative data, e.g. about flowering, seed production, leaf/needle shedding etc. (the sampling date/frequency should coincide with the period for the litterfall survey in the deposition measurement) Girth bands precise measurements of the onset and cessation of growth and the response of trees to stress phenomena; the “annual values” give the increment of the year Pollen information in order to get information on the timing of pollination and on pollen quantity to estimate seed production (as far as available through other institutes or medical services ) Additional monitoring techniques

  14. Meteo stations are installed on a limited number of Level II plots harmonized methods are still urgent (e.g. for handling missing data, using external data, “FIMCI”-methods, national methods) standards of derived information (e.g. water availability), and basic evaluation and models are not completed the sub-manual needs a revision Where are we now at the Meteo part ?

  15. the phenology web-site is installed the Pheno sub-manual is (still) optional only few countries apply already the program the first test evaluation is on the way, but only very few countries contributed to it more countries are necessary for to discuss and exchange practical experience an inter-calibration course is not yet cleared up the sub-manual needs a revision Where are we now at the Pheno part ?

  16. deeper communication with other EP’s and WG’s is on the way (e.g. EP Growth, EP Crown, WG Biotic damage, WG Litterfall, WG Ozone); many parts of their items are presently part of our manual, harmonisation and joint use are necessary the next EP Meteo/Pheno meeting will take place in Karpinissi, Greece, from 11 to 13 May 2003 (travel days 10 and 14 May). We hope for contribution of other EP’s and WG’s. at the ICP Forests Task Force Meeting 2004 we want to present draft proposals for revised sub-manuals What are we going to do ?

  17. Example for coincide measure of air temperature, precipitation, soil moisture and diameter change Preuhsler et all, 1996

  18. Example for Height Increment and Restricted Water Availibility 1992 1993 1993 1994 1994 Year 1995 1995 1996 1996 1997 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Weeks Mean Height Increment of Terminal Shoot (Quercus robur plants) Time Periods of Restricted Water Availibility Eta/Etp < 0,5 (Evapotranspiration: actual / potential) Preuhsler/Pinto-Preuhsler/Raspe, 2000

  19. Diameter Variation and Phenological Phenomena at Level II-Plot Freising 0,6 0,5 Beech Oak 0,4 0,3 difference in diameter [cm] 0,2 0,1 ? 0 -0,1 Raspe/Kroll, 2001

  20. Thank You for cooperation and integrated use of our data

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