Conceptions of Technology • The Use of Computers in Schools: a.Drill-and-practice software(mimicks flash cards); reinforces existing knowledge such as multiplication facts; efficient way to achieve rote-learning objectives although current educational trends question the value of the type of rote-learning this type of software promotes. b.Tutorials; attempts to teach the learner new info.; ranges from simple to complex strategies which allows for branching and adaptation to individual differences.c.Educational games; provide an interesting theme, are often variations of drill-and-practice software, sometimes adding a time variable.
Conceptions of Technology(Continued) • The Use of Computers in Business: Computers are used differently in the workplace than they are used in the schools. Computers are used as a tool to solve problems in the work-place; applications include spreadsheets, databases, word-processing, graphic programs, desktop publishing tools, e-mail, the Internet, etc… • The competencies that employers will be looking for in employees are reflected in the National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS)
Computers as Tools to Make Us Smarter • One TOOL man has invented to help us increase our thinking ability is the COMPUTER! • Computers act as a physical artifact; makes us smarter and more efficient • Some examples of how computers can make us smarter: • Students can create a graph of collected data using the computer; the graph helps the students to reflect and identify patterns and trends to generate new ideas. • Students can store data on a computer (like a filing cabinet); they can use a database program to recall important data which encourages them to reflect and synthesize on ideas. • Computers can make our students (all of us) smarter when our students begin to process the data they have generated w/the computer.
The NTeQ Model • NTeQ – iNtegrating(N) Technology(Te) for inQuiry(Q) • The NTeQ model is a method for teachers to follow when creating lesson plans w/the integration of computer technology in the classroom. This model enables students to use a computer as a tooland encourages higher-level thinking and processing skills.
The Ten-Step Approach The NTeQ model involves 10 steps for creating a lesson that integrates technology into the classroom • Specify Objectives:objectives are based on standards, benchmarks, & curriculum materials; objectives should be clearly stated and guide the teacher’s preparation of the lesson • Match Computer Functions: there must be a relationship between the objectives and the functions a computer can perform; computer functions are tasks that computer software can assist with or perform; there will always be a match w/every objective b/c computers are not used in every lesson • Specify the Problem: students are given or identify a problem; a good problem is one that students can relate to and understand
The Ten-Step Approach(continued) 4.Data Manipulation: the teacher plans/decides how the student will manipulate the data they’ve gathered through observation/experimentation/Internet research, etc…; this decision directly relates to the computer functions and objectives 5. Results Presentation: the teacher plans/decides how the students will present the knowledge they’ve gained through observation/experimentation/Internet research, etc…; written/oral reports, newspapers/magazines, posters, web pages, books, PowerPoint presentations, etc… 6. Activities During Computer Use: the teacher plans/decides what activities the students will complete at the computer; have clear expectations of how the students will use the technology 7. Activities Before Computer Use: the teacher plans/decides the activities the students need to complete to make the computer time efficient and effective
The Ten-Step Approach(continued) 8. Activities After Computer Use: this step needs to engage students in reflective, higher-level thinking about the data they have collected and manipulated; the teacher should develop questions and a plan for encouraging the students to reflect and analyze (ex. – Think Sheet) 9. Supporting Activities: these are activities that do not require the use of the computer but are essential to the lesson; silent reading, group discussion, teacher-led discussion, use of manipulatives, etc… 10. Assessment: alternative (authentic) types of assessments may be needed for integrated lessons; paper-and-pencil (traditional) types of assessment may not be adequate to assess student’s learning when integrating computer technology into the lesson.
Teacher – need to experience using the computer as a tool, need to understand the relationship between basic computer functions and student learning, and need to use their knowledge of student learning and technology to take on the role of the designer, manager, & facilitator of a student-centered environment Student – actively engages in the learning process, acts as researcher, & become technologically competent Computer – used as a TOOL to enhance learning, uses real-world data to solve problems; the computer is not the point of emphasis Lesson– student-centered, problem-based, technology is integrated; NTeQ model is not intended for EVERY lesson Environment – classroom consists of multiple, resource-rich activities NTeQ Philosophy Five Basic Components:
NTeQ and the Standards • 1st, teachers must address the national, state, and local district’s standards (or benchmarks) • 2nd, teachers must address the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS)for Students; these standards address the students’ use of computer technology; the technology standards are broken down into 6 broad categories: basic operations & concepts, social, ethical, and human issues, technology productivity tools, technology communication tools, technology research tools, and technology problem-solving and decision-making tools Teacher’s must address 2 types of standards while planning and teaching.