The Struggle to Found Colonies Lesson 1 Hard Times In Virginia
England’s rulers watched as their rival Spain established vast new colonies in the Americas. • Queen Elizabeth I sent colonists to a place called Roanoke Island. • Like the Spanish they hoped to find gold in the Americas. • Queen Elizabeth knew that establishing a colony in North America would be difficult and expensive. The Lost Colony of Roanoke
A close advisor to the Queen, Sir Walter Raleigh, offered to organize the first colony himself. • The first group of colonist Raleigh sent to Roanoke Island landed in 1585.They faced a terrible winter during which they had trouble finding food. Many starved or returned home. • In 1587, Raleigh sent another group to Roanoke Island with John White in charge of more than 100 men, women, and children.
This colony struggled also. John White went back to England to get more supplies, however, England was in the middle of a war with Spain. • Because of the war White wasn’t able to return until 1590. • When he landed on Roanoke Island he couldn’t find a single person. Only the word “Croatian” was carved into a tree. • Croatoan was the name of an American Indian group that lived near Roanoke Island. • No one knows what happened to all of the colonists. The colony became known as “The Lost Colony.”
As tensions grew between England and Spain, the King of England angered the King of Spain by attempting to build a colony. • Sir Francis Drake, an English sea captain began a historic voyage around the world. When he returned he was loaded with gold he had captured from Spanish ships. • Drake was called “Master Thief”. The Battle of the Spanish Armada
In 1588, King Phillip decided to attack England. He assembled the Spanish Armada, a huge fleet of war ships. • The English war ships were stronger than the Spanish. The English had a major victory over the Spanish.
In 1606, a group of merchants formed the Virginia Company of London. They asked King James I for a charter to set up a colony in Virginia. • A charter was a document that permitted colonists to settle on land claimed by their ruler. • The owners of the Virginia Company sold stock in their company. • Stocks are shares of a company. Jamestown Colony
In 1607, three English ships carrying about 120 colonists reached the eastern coast of Virginia. • After sailing up the James River, they landed on a peninsula in the river. They called this spot Jamestown. • One of the settlers was John Smith. He called Jamestown a “very fit place for erecting a great city”. He was wrong. The land was low and swampy, and was filled with disease carrying mosquitoes.
The river water was not fit to drink and almost immediately the colonists began to get sick and die.
Since most Jamestown settlers expected to find gold they didn’t bother to build houses or plant crops. • Soon men began to die of starvation and disease. By the end of the first year only 38 settlers were still alive. • Chief Powhatan, leader of the Powhatan people, taught the settlers to plant crops. • Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas, often visited the colony. John Smith and the “Starving Time”
Later, Smith was taken prisoner by Powhatan’s people. He was about to be killed when Pocahontas , 12 years old, saved his life. • Later Smith and Pocahontas were married and she took the Christian name of Rebecca.
Like corn and tomatoes, tobacco was native to the Americas. • In 1612, a settler named John Rolfe raised a crop of tobacco in the rich Virginia soil. • Tobacco soon became Virginia’s cash crop. • Cash crop is a crop grown profit. • Thousands of English people began arriving in Jamestown. They came as “indentured servants” Tobacco Helps Jamestown Grow
Indentured Servants agree to work for someone for a certain amount of time in exchange for the cost of the ocean voyage to North America. • In 1619, a Dutch ship arrived with 20 Africans who were sold as indentured servants and later released.
On July 30, 1619, the Virginia House of Burgesses met for the first time. • The House of Burgesses was the first law-making assembly in an English colony. Self-Government in Virginia
Samuel de Champlaine sailed the St. Lawrence River in hopes of finding the Northwest Passage. • The Northwest Passage was a waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. • In 1609, the Dutch sent an English sea captain named Henry Hudson to search for a new water route to Asia. New European ColoniesLesson 2 French and Dutch Settlements
The story of the Pilgrims begins in England during the early 1500’s. At this time, England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. • England’s King Henry VIII, created a new church called the Church of England. • The membership was made up of Puritans and Separatists • A Separatist was someone who wanted to separate completely from the Church of England.
A Puritan is a member who wanted to cleanse the church from within the church. • Separatists were often persecuted, or unjustly treated because of their beliefs. • William Bradford was a leader of the separatists, who with his group left England for the New World. • These people were known as pilgrims. • A Pilgrim is a person who journeys for religious reasons.
In September 1620, about 100 Pilgrims crowded into a small ship called the Mayflower. • During bad weather the ship was pushed off course. Instead of landing in Virginia, the Pilgrims landed farther north of Cape Cod. • Capt. John Smith named this region New England. • Before anyone left the ship all of the men signed a document called The Mayflower Compact. • The Compact was a list of rules to be followed by all colonists. The Mayflower
During the Spring, the Pilgrims, hard at work planting seeds, met a Native American called Samoset. • Samoset would become a good friend to the settlers.
Samoset told the Pilgrims of another Native American named Squanto. • Having been captured at one point by English men Squanto knew the language of the settlers. • Acting as translator, Squanto helped the Pilgrims make a peace treaty with Massasoit. • Massasoit was the leader of the Wampanoag.
In 1630, another group sailed from England to North America in search of religious freedom. This group was called the Puritans. • A Puritan wanted to “purify” the church from within the church. They were led by a lawyer named John Winthrop. • The Puritans called their colony Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Puritans Arrive
There were many out spoken people who came to the New World. • Roger Williams was a minister in Salem, Massachusetts. He believed that the government should not punish citizens for what they believe. • Williams was known as a dissenter, a person whose views differ from those held by most people in the community. The New Colonies
Williams started a colony known as Rhode Island. • Anne Hutchinson was another dissenter who angered Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. She believed that a person’s own faith in God was more important than the church’s rules and laws. • Hutchinson was forced to leave Boston and fled to Rhode Island. • Thomas Hooker left Massachusetts and founded a colony called Connecticut.
Hooker and his followers came to Connecticut for religious freedom and political peace.
In 1681, King Charles II gave a huge section of land to a man named William Penn. • Penn was a Quaker who settled in Pennsylvania. • They were the only settlers who paid the Native Americans for their land. The Middle Colonies
Quakers wanted a colony of their own. In 1632, King Charles I gave a large section of land to a Catholic landowner named Lord Baltimore. • He named his colony Maryland. • Maryland was a proprietary colony, meaning a colony where the land was controlled by an individual or group of proprietors, or owners. The Southern Colonies
An English leader named James Oglethorpe helped found the last of the English colonies in North America. • When Oglethorpe saw how crowded the English jails were, he devised a plan to send all debtors in jail to this new colony. • A debtor is a person who owes a lot of money. • Chief Tomochichi met with Oglethorpe and agreed to give land to Oglethorpe. His first settlement was in a lace called Savannah, Georgia.