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Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology

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Principles of Ecology

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  1. Principles of Ecology Unit 2Chapter 2

  2. What is ecology? • Ecology: study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment

  3. Biosphere • the portion of the Earth that supports living things • Ex: ocean, forest, atmosphere.

  4. Abiotic vs. Biotic factors • Abiotic = nonliving parts of the environment • Ex: light, air, temperature, soil • Biotic = living parts of the environment • Ex: bacteria, protist, fungus, plant, animal

  5. Levels of organization from smallest to largest • Individual • Population • Community • Ecosystem

  6. Individual • made of cells, uses energy, reproduces, responds, grows, and develops

  7. Population • group of organisms all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area at the same time

  8. Community • interacting populations in a certain area at a certain time

  9. Ecosystem • interacting communities and abiotic factors

  10. Habitat vs. Niche • Habitat: place where organism lives • Niche: role or position a species has in its environment

  11. Habitats are capable of changing. What can lead to changes in habitats?

  12. Symbiosis: interactions between two species • Mutualism: both benefits • Commensalism: one benefits, the other unaffected • Parasitism: one benefits, one is harmed

  13. Mutualism Clownfish is protected, while providing a lure for the anemone. Some say that this relationship can be commensalistic.

  14. Commensalism Volcano sponge using the crinoid sponge as a “lift” for increased filtration but the crinoid sponge is unaffected.

  15. Parasitism Head lice

  16. How organisms obtain energy • Autotroph (producer): photosynthetic or chemosynthetic, makes own food • Heterotroph (consumer): “eat” other organisms, cannot make own food • Decomposer: breaks down dead or decaying organisms, recycles matter

  17. Autotroph

  18. Heterotrophs - scavengers • Scavengers: feed off of dead or decaying living things but do not recycle matter back into the ecosystem

  19. Heterotrophs - herbivores • consume only vegetative matter • mostly primary consumers.

  20. Heterotrophs - carnivores • obtain energy from eating other consumers • Secondary and tertiary consumers

  21. Decomposers Typical examples: fungus and bacteria

  22. Food chain • shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem (one route) berries → mice → black bear

  23. Food web • shows interactions between organisms (all possible routes)

  24. Energy pyramid Pyramid of Energy Heat 0.1% Consumers 1% Consumers Heat • Shows how much energy is available at each trophic (energy) level 10% Consumers Heat Heat Parasites, scavengers, and decomposers feed at each level.

  25. Autotrophs Third-order heterotrophs Second-order heterotrophs First-order heterotrophs Decomposers

  26. Four cycles in nature • Water cycle • Carbon cycle • Nitrogen cycle • Phosphorus cycle

  27. Water cycle

  28. Carbon cycle

  29. Nitrogen cycle

  30. Phosphorus cycle