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Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology

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Principles of Ecology

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  1. Principles of Ecology

  2. Ecosystem • An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of: • Plants • Animals • micro-organisms • physical factors

  3. Ecosystem

  4. Abiotic and Biotic • abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment • abiotic components can impact evolution • Biotic components are living organisms

  5. Abiotic and Biotic

  6. Microbes • Microbe-an organism that is microscopic • include • Bacteria • Fungi • Archaea • Protists • Microscopic Plants • green algae • Microscopic Animals • Plankton • Planarian • Amoeba • Sometimes including viruses, but others consider these as non-living

  7. Microbes

  8. Animals • Kingdom Animalia • Multicellular • Eukaryotic • Body plan becomes fixed as they develop • some undergo a process of metamorphosis • Most animals are motile (can move) • Most animals are heterotrophs (consumers)

  9. Animals – The tree is NOT in the kingdom Animalia

  10. KingdomPlantae Eukarotic Autotrophs Obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis Have a cell wall of cellulose Kingdom Protista Common algae =seaweeds Algae classified by color Green Red brown algae. Each algal groups includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms Plants vs. Algae

  11. Plants

  12. Photosynthesis • Photosynthesis is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds (sugars) • Uses the energy from sunlight. • Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria. light • In Chloroplast CO2 + H20>>>C6H12O6+O2 • In Chloroplast Carbon Dioxide+Water+Light>>>>Glucose+Oxygen

  13. Co2 + H2O>O2+C6H12O6

  14. Respiration • Cellular respiration is the process that converts nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and release waste products. • In Mitochondria O2+C6H12O6>>>CO2+H20+energy • Oxygen + Glucose>>>Carbon Dioxide +Water + Energy

  15. Respiration

  16. Aerobic and Anaerobic • Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy (ATP). • Anaerobic=without oxygen the organism doe not metabolized by cellular respiration but undergoes a process of fermentation. • Both create energy for organism

  17. Aerobic and Anaerobic

  18. Nitrogen Fixation • Nitrogen fixation-the process by which nitrogen is taken from the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds • Ammonia • nitrate • nitrite. • This is an essential process for life because fixed nitrogen is needed to amino acids Which makes proteins. • Happens from bacteria on the roots of legumes

  19. Nitrogen fixation

  20. Blue-green algae • Cyanobacteria is known as blue-green algae or blue-green bacteria • A phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. • Important component of the marine nitrogen cycle & primary producer in many areas of the ocean • Found in freshwater • Hyper saline lakes • Found in arid areas • they are a major component of biological soil crusts.

  21. Blue Green Algae

  22. Nitrogen Gas • Nitrogen is a chemical element • the symbol N • atomic number 7 • atomic mass 14.00674µ. • Elemental nitrogen is • Colorless • Odorless • Tasteless • mostly inertdiatomic gas • constitutes 78% by volume of Earth's atmosphere.

  23. Nitrogen Gas

  24. Ammonia • Ammonia- a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen • formula NH3 • pungent odor. • Ammonia contributes to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. • Ammonium ions are a toxic waste product of animals. • In fishes and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. • In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea, because it is less toxic and can be stored more efficiently. • In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid, which is solid, and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss.

  25. Ammonia

  26. Nitrate • A nitrate is a salt of nitric acid with an ion composed of one nitrogen and three oxygen atoms (NO−3). • In freshwater or estuarine systems nitrate can reach high levels that can potentially cause the death of fish. • While nitrate is much less toxic than ammonia or nitrite, levels over 30 ppm of nitrate can inhibit growth, impair the immune system and cause stress in some aquatic species. • Fertilizer can increase primary production of algae, and cause an algae bloom.

  27. Nitrate