Ecosystem • An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of: • Plants • Animals • micro-organisms • physical factors
Abiotic and Biotic • abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment • abiotic components can impact evolution • Biotic components are living organisms
Microbes • Microbe-an organism that is microscopic • include • Bacteria • Fungi • Archaea • Protists • Microscopic Plants • green algae • Microscopic Animals • Plankton • Planarian • Amoeba • Sometimes including viruses, but others consider these as non-living
Animals • Kingdom Animalia • Multicellular • Eukaryotic • Body plan becomes fixed as they develop • some undergo a process of metamorphosis • Most animals are motile (can move) • Most animals are heterotrophs (consumers)
KingdomPlantae Eukarotic Autotrophs Obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis Have a cell wall of cellulose Kingdom Protista Common algae =seaweeds Algae classified by color Green Red brown algae. Each algal groups includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms Plants vs. Algae
Photosynthesis • Photosynthesis is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds (sugars) • Uses the energy from sunlight. • Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria. light • In Chloroplast CO2 + H20>>>C6H12O6+O2 • In Chloroplast Carbon Dioxide+Water+Light>>>>Glucose+Oxygen
Respiration • Cellular respiration is the process that converts nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and release waste products. • In Mitochondria O2+C6H12O6>>>CO2+H20+energy • Oxygen + Glucose>>>Carbon Dioxide +Water + Energy
Aerobic and Anaerobic • Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy (ATP). • Anaerobic=without oxygen the organism doe not metabolized by cellular respiration but undergoes a process of fermentation. • Both create energy for organism
Nitrogen Fixation • Nitrogen fixation-the process by which nitrogen is taken from the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds • Ammonia • nitrate • nitrite. • This is an essential process for life because fixed nitrogen is needed to amino acids Which makes proteins. • Happens from bacteria on the roots of legumes
Blue-green algae • Cyanobacteria is known as blue-green algae or blue-green bacteria • A phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. • Important component of the marine nitrogen cycle & primary producer in many areas of the ocean • Found in freshwater • Hyper saline lakes • Found in arid areas • they are a major component of biological soil crusts.
Nitrogen Gas • Nitrogen is a chemical element • the symbol N • atomic number 7 • atomic mass 14.00674µ. • Elemental nitrogen is • Colorless • Odorless • Tasteless • mostly inertdiatomic gas • constitutes 78% by volume of Earth's atmosphere.
Ammonia • Ammonia- a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen • formula NH3 • pungent odor. • Ammonia contributes to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. • Ammonium ions are a toxic waste product of animals. • In fishes and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. • In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea, because it is less toxic and can be stored more efficiently. • In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid, which is solid, and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss.
Nitrate • A nitrate is a salt of nitric acid with an ion composed of one nitrogen and three oxygen atoms (NO−3). • In freshwater or estuarine systems nitrate can reach high levels that can potentially cause the death of fish. • While nitrate is much less toxic than ammonia or nitrite, levels over 30 ppm of nitrate can inhibit growth, impair the immune system and cause stress in some aquatic species. • Fertilizer can increase primary production of algae, and cause an algae bloom.