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IASSW: October 2012 Continuum of Tier 2/3 Interventions

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  1. IASSW: October 2012Continuum of Tier 2/3 Interventions Sheri Luecking, MSW, LCSW School Social Worker, Technical Assistance Director Illinois PBIS Network  This is a presentation of the Illinois PBIS Network. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports:A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model Tier 1/Universal School-Wide Assessment School-Wide Prevention Systems ODRs, Attendance, Tardies, Grades, DIBELS, etc. Tier 2/Secondary Tier 3/ Tertiary Check-in/ Check-out Intervention Assessment Social/Academic Instructional Groups Daily Progress Report (DPR)(Behavior and Academic Goals) Individualized Check-In/Check-Out, Groups & Mentoring (ex. CnC) Competing Behavior Pathway, Functional Assessment Interview, Scatter Plots, etc. Brief Functional Behavioral Assessment/ Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA/BIP) Complex FBA/BIP SIMEO Tools: HSC-T, RD-T, EI-T Illinois PBIS Network, Revised August 2009 Adapted from T. Scott, 2004 Wraparound 2

  3. Critical Features of Secondary/Tier 2 Group Interventions • Intervention is continuously available • Rapid access to intervention (72 hr.) • Very low effort by teachers • Consistent with school-wide expectations • Allstaff/faculty in school are involved/have access • Flexibleintervention based on descriptive functional assessment • Adequate resources (admin., team) • Continuous monitoring for decision-making

  4. Why do Secondary/Tier 2 Group Interventions Work? • Improved structure • Prompts throughout the day for correct behavior • System for linking student with at least one adult • Student chooses to participate • Increased feedback • Feedback occurs more often • Feedback is tied to student behavior • Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded

  5. Why do Secondary/Tier 2 Group Interventions Work? • Increased frequency of acknowledgment/ reinforcement for appropriate behavior • Adult and peer attention • Linking school and home support • Organized to morph into a self-management system

  6. Do All staff understand the Context for PBIS? • Behavior support is the redesign of environments, not the redesign of individuals. • Positive behavior support plans define changes in the behavior of those who will implement the plan. A behavior support plan describes what we will do differently.

  7. Tier 1: Universal • 3-5 Clear expectations that are taught to all staff and students • High Frequency, Intermittent, and Long Term acknowledgement systems • Data system in place to assess ODR by problem behavior, by time of day, by location, by student, and per ODR per student per day • Team to review on at least monthly basis • Administrative commitment , participation, and support

  8. Example of T- Chart of PBIS

  9. CICO Daily Cycle (March & Horner, 1998) 1. Check-in with assigned adult upon arrival to school • Adult positively greets student • Review School-wide expectations (daily goals) • Students pick up new Daily Progress Report card • Provide materials (pencil etc.) if needed • Turn in previous day’s signed form (optional) • Provide reinforcer for check-in (optional)

  10. CICO Daily Cycle continued… 2. At each class: • Teacher provides positive and/or corrective behavioral feedback • Teacher completes DPR or • Student completes self-monitoring DPR/teacher checks and initials card (self-monitoring normally happens as students begin to successfully exit the intervention) 3. Check-out at end of day: • Review points & goals • Reinforce youth for checking-out (token/recognition optional, think beyond school-wide token) • Receive reinforcer if goal met (optional, but good idea) • Take DPR card home (optional)

  11. CICO Daily Cycle continued… 4. Give DPR to parent (optional) • Receive reinforcer from parent • Have parent sign card • Students are not “punished” if their parents don’t cooperate 5. Return signed card next day – celebrate (if not returned, simply go on)

  12. Social/Academic Instructional Groups Three types of skills-building groups: 1) Pro-social skills 2) Problem-solving skills 3) Academic Behavior skills Best if involves use of Daily Progress Report These are often the skill groups facilitated by Social Workers, Counselors & Psychologists However, can consider other providers : Teacher Assistants, Behavior Interventionists etc.

  13. Social/Academic Instructional Groups Selection into groups should be based on youths’ reaction to life circumstance not existence of life circumstances (ex. fighting with peers, not family divorce) Skills taught are common across youth in same group (ex. use your words) Data should measure if skills are being USED in natural settings, not in counseling sessions (transference of skills to classroom, café etc.) Stakeholders (teachers, family etc.) should have input into success of intervention (ex. Daily Progress Report)

  14. Choosing or Designing Group Interventions • Choose & modify lessons from pre-packaged material based on the skill needed for the group and/or • Use already created universal behavior lesson plans or create lesson plans (Cool Tools) to directly teach replacement behaviors

  15. SAIG Template Considerations • Name/Type of group • Pro-social skills • Problem-solving skills • Academic Behavior skills Skill sets and purpose of group • Identify skills that need to be taught • Culturally appropriate Behavior Lesson Plans/Curriculum that addresses skill set

  16. Create Your Own Lesson Plans:Teaching Behavioral Expectations 1) State behavioral expectations 2) Specify observable student behaviors (rules) 3) Model appropriate student behaviors 4) Students practice appropriate behaviors 5) Reinforce appropriate behaviors

  17. Steps of a Behavioral Lesson Plan 1) Explain expectations & why need 2) Check for student understanding/buy-in 3) Modelexamples 4) Check for student understanding/buy-in 5) Model non-examples 6) Check for student understanding/buy-in 7) Model examples 8) Students practice

  18. Examples of Packaged Instructional Groups • Second Step (Grades PreK-8) • Thinking, Feeling, Behaving (Grades 1-12) • Tough Kids Social Skills (Grades 3-7) • Walker Social Skills Curriculum (Grades 6-12) • Skillstreaming (Grades PreK-12) • Stop & Think Social Skills (Grades PreK-8) • Passport (Grades 1-12) • I Can problem Solve (Grades PreK-6) • Aggression Replacement Training All of above examples could be used to develop universal behavior lesson plans.

  19. 3 Keys to Successful S/AIG’s • Have a Roadmap/Template • Skills that are taught need to be pinpointed before choosing “curriculum” and are clear enough that teachers can pre-correct, shape and reinforce for generalization in classroom ie. “Working on expressing feelings” equates to “Using ‘I messages’” on DPR form • Pay attention if you are choosing to use pieces of a packaged curriculum rather than your already created universal behavior lesson plans. • Differentiate between stand-alone curriculum and curriculum made to have lessons build upon one another ie. Stand alone curriculum can be used • Skills Streaming • Second Step ie. Curriculum that builds upon previous lessons – use with caution • ART 3. Build S/AIGs on top of a strong universal curriculum

  20. Procedural Considerations • Welcome • Introductions, if necessary • Purpose of Group • Group Norms – ie. expectations of group, aligned to school-wide expectations • “Curriculum” with practice • Closing • Reflection • Application • Goal setting Corey & Corey, 2006

  21. Academic Behavior Skills From Skill Streaming • Listening • Asking for Help • Saying Thank You • Bringing Materials to Class • Following Instructions • Completing Assignments • Contributing to Discussions • Offering Help to an Adult • Asking a Question • Ignoring Distractions • Making Corrections • Deciding on Something to Do • Setting a Goal From Getting Organized Without Losing It • Homework Checklist • After School Scheduler • 9 Great Reasons to Use a Student Planner

  22. Pro-Social Skills - Friendship From Skill Streaming • Introducing Yourself • Beginning a Conversation • Ending a Conversation • Joining In • Playing a Game • Asking a Favor • Offering Help to a Classmate • Giving a Compliment • Accepting a Compliment • Suggesting an Activity • Sharing • Apologizing From Strong Kids (Grades 3-5) • About My Feelings • Ways of Showing Feelings

  23. Problem-Solving Skills From Skill Streaming • Knowing Your Feelings • Expressing Your Feelings • Recognizing Another's Feelings • Showing Understanding of Another's Feelings • Expressing Concern for Another • Dealing with Your Anger • Dealing with Another's Anger • Expressing Affection • Dealing with Fear • Rewarding Yourself • Using Self-Control • Asking Permission • Responding to Teasing • Avoiding Trouble • Staying Out of Fights • Problem Solving • Accepting Consequences • Dealing with an Accusation • Negotiating From The Peace Curriculum • Using Positive Self-Talk to Control Anger • Homework #3 Anger Control: Consequences for Your Actions • Keeping Out of Fights

  24. S/AIG- Groups Cards

  25. S/AIG- Pro Social Cards

  26. CICO ~Cards

  27. CICO with individualizedfeatures • This is an intervention that adds support to generic CICO. • Teachers choose these more individualized options on the reverse request for assistance (RRFA). • Teachers are given the option to choose from these features after CICO was not enough support for a student.

  28. CICO with individualized features What it is What it isn’t Changing the goal line one child at a time Changing or adding a goal for one child Changing the goals on the Daily Progress Report for one child or a group of children A meeting with the specialized staff and the teacher changing a student’s DPR. • Options are pre-determined and communicated to all stakeholders. • Secondary systems team designs the options for the building. • Quick & Efficient • A list of specified options teachers can choose from listed on the reverse request for assistance

  29. CICO with individualized features What it is What it isn’t One adult changing/ adding goals or DPR Changing or adding a goal for a group of kids (homework, grades, or a specific behavior). Changing the DPR card because there are individualized features • Used after generic CICO has been tried for a set time (for example 4-6 weeks) and the student has not met the pre-determined goal set for all children. • Options for individualizing the intervention are generic and quick • Uses the same DPR as used in generic CICO

  30. Examples of CICO with Individualized Features Example one: Extra check in time before/after lunch with secretary in office Example two: Peer accompanies student to check in at beginning of day and check out at end of day Example three: Check in with supportive adult prior to a difficult class period

  31. 5 Types of MentoringElements of Effective Practice (appendix section iv) • Traditional One-to-One Mentoring • Group Mentoring • Team Mentoring • Peer Mentoring • E-mentoring

  32. Activities of Mentoring Relationships & Tasks (Developmental) (Instrumental) (Karcher et al. 2006)

  33. Best Practices(Dubois, Holloway, Valentine, Cooper) 2002 • Monitoring implementation • Screening • Matching • Pre-match • Ongoing training • Supervision • Support for mentors • Structured activities • Parent support • Expectations for frequency • Expectations for length of contact

  34. Mentoring Fueled from “…importance that positive relationships with extra-familial adults promotes resiliency among youth from at-risk backgrounds.” Rhodes, 1994

  35. School Based Mentoring SBM • (SBM) is most common form of mentoring • Growth has outpaced research • Mentoring viewed as privilege and reward • To lengthen matches needs to happen early in school year. • One year commitment often norm in SBM (BBBS SBM and CIS SMILE study) • Communication with mentor and school staff, adequate access to resources and space are linked to match quality & longevity. (Herrera et al., 2007; karcher 2005a). • End of match is CRUCIAL stage

  36. Meta Analysis 55 Evaluations(Dubois, Holloway, Valentine & Cooper, 2002). • Small benefit of program participation of average youth • Program effects significantly better when best practices in place • Youth from backgrounds of environmental risk and disadvantage benefit the most

  37. What Makes Mentoring WorkRhodes/Research Cornder at Mentoring.org • Conducting reasonably intensive screening of potential mentors • Making matches based on interests that both the mentor and mentee share • Providing more than 6 hours of training for mentors • Offering post-match training and support.

  38. Predictive of Stronger Positive Effects • Procedures for monitoring program implementation • Use of community settings • Utilization of mentors with backgrounds in helping roles • Clearly established expectations for frequency • Ongoing (post-match) training for mentors • Structured activities for mentors and youth • Support for parent involvement David L Dubois, Ph.D., University of Illinois ChicagoResearch in Action, issue 2

  39. Best Practices(Dubois, Holloway, Valentine, Cooper) 2002 • Monitoring implementation • Screening • Matching • Pre-match • Ongoing training • Supervision • Support for mentors • Structured activities • Parent support • Expectations for frequency • Expectations for length of contact

  40. Understanding the Evidence Supporting School-based MentoringCautions & CaveatsKarcher, 2010 One-on-One mentoring minimizes deviancy training Dishion, McCord & Poulin, 1999; Dodge, Dishion & Lansford, 2006Misguided Mentoring D.M. Hansen & Larson, 2007; K. Hansen & Corlett, 2007; Karcher, 2004Importance of Best Practices Karcher, 2010

  41. Looking for mentoring resources? www.mentoring.org

  42. Functional Assessment of Behavior“BIG IDEAS” • Functional assessment is a problem solving process – a way to think about behavior systematically. “FA can be done in your head.” • Functional assessment identifies the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior.

  43. Identifying who needs an FBA/BIP • Academic/behavior data indicates challenge • High intensity or frequency of behavior • Behavior impedes academic performance • Don’t understand behavior • Behavior seems to meet need or be reinforcing for student • Interventions have not been successful • Use data

  44. FBA Team Process Steps • Collect information • What does the problem look like? • What series of events predicts behavior? • What is the maintaining consequence of the observable behavior? • Hypothesis statement? • Develop “competing pathways” and replacement behaviors • Develop BIP. • Develop strategies for monitoring & evaluating implementation of BSP.

  45. Interventions… Ownership & Voice: A Key to Intervention Design The person who is supposed to implement the strategy needs to be actively involved in designing it; or it probably won’t work!

  46. Competing Behavior Pathway Challenging Behavior Triggering Events Maintaining Consequences Setting Events

  47. BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLANNING Add effective & & remove ineffective reinforcers Teach alternative that is more efficient Neutralize/ eliminate setting events Add relevant & remove irrelevant triggers

  48. Behavioral Pathway Antecedent Less structured activities that involve competition Setting Event Days with Gym Problem Behavior Negative comments about activity and to peers leading to physical contact Consequence Sent out of P.E. class Function To escape setting

  49. Brief Function-based Interventions Consequence Supports Acknowledging/rewarding student when uses new skills (asking for a drink of water to leave, using respectful language with peers, being a good sport, etc..) • Setting Event Supports • Add check-in before gym • Antecedent Strategies • Behavior Lessons for all students about using respectful language with self and others and how to be to be a good sport • . More frequent activities with less focus on competition (parachute, 4-square, etc...) • Pre-correct • Teaching Strategies • Teach social skills (getting along with others, friendship, problem solving, sportsmanship) • Teach how to approach gym teacher to ask for a drink of water to leave setting. • Teach student how to re-enter and continue with activity