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THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

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  1. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT WOMEN’S RIGHTS, NAACP TO THE 1960’S

  2. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENTS • The women’s rights movement in the 1800’s laid the foundation for minority rights. • The Civil War Amendments (pushed for by Frederick Douglas) passed by Abe Lincoln were the cornerstones. • Booker T. Washington was an early advocate for civil rights. • Harry Truman desegregated the military in World War II. • Ike was president when Brown v. Board was passed in 1954.

  3. HARRY TRUMAN • President Truman advanced the cause of civil rights when he ordered the • desegregation of — • A all branches of the armed forces. • B factories which produced military supplies. • C all public high schools. • D state-funded colleges and universities.

  4. THE EARLY MOVEMENT • Plessy v. Ferguson- 1896 Supreme Court case that established “separate but equal”; it legalized segregation • Jim Crow Laws- discrimination laws in the South; ex. African-Americans had curfews, couldn’t testify against a white person in court, had to ride on the back of the bus… • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.- preacher in Montgomery, AL who became the leader of the Mont. Bus Boycott; • He led SCLC and believed in non-violence; influenced by Gandhi

  5. Supreme court cases impact • Brown vs. Board of Education-1954 Supreme Court case that outlawed segregation in schools; Thurgood • Marshall was the NAACP attorney who represented Linda Brown • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott- 1955; considered the beginning of the civil rights movement; • She refused to give up her seat so a white man could be seated; she was arrested and a city-wide boycott began; the Supreme Ct. stepped in and integrated Mont. buses

  6. BROWN V.BOARD • Excerpt from Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954): • “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but • equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.’’ • Which statement BEST describes the meaning of this section of the Supreme Court • ruling? • A Local schools should solve their own problems. • B The act of legally segregating the races in schools is unconstitutional. • C Schools should be funded in a way that provides equal amounts of money. • D In order to provide equality in schools, the federal government must control local • schools.

  7. Brown v. Board of Education(1954)

  8. Rosa Parks

  9. Montgomery Bus Boycott

  10. Little Rock Nine • Little Rock Nine- 9 Af-Am teenagers integrated Little Rock’s Central High despite brutal protests • Greensboro and Nashville sit-ins- SNCC and other groups fought to integrate downtown lunch counters by staging sit-ins; they sat quietly and were refused service… they continued to sit peacefully and were • beaten/arrested

  11. Little Rock

  12. Little Rock Nine

  13. Blocked by Arkansas National Guard

  14. ARKANSAS AND CIVIL RIGHTS • When the governor of Arkansas called up the National Guard to prevent African • American children from entering all-white public schools in 1957, President • Eisenhower directed the United States Army to intervene. In this case, the president • was attempting to enforce — • A a state law. • B a federal court order. • C a congressional resolution. • D an international mandate.

  15. THE RACIST SOUTH • Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee- SNCC; college age students who organized non-violent protests • Freedom Riders- civil rights workers who hoped to integrate bus terminals; they rode buses from city to city in the South and often faced fierce crowds when they arrived at their destinations • Bull Conner and Birmingham- Racist police commissioner of Birmingham, AL who ordered the police/firefighters to • use dogs and fire hoses on children during a protest; it was videoed and shown world wide on news stations; B’ham was known as “Bombingham” due to the # of bombs used and violent acts that occurred

  16. BROWN V. BOARD • Excerpt from Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954): • “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but • equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.’’ • Which statement BEST describes the meaning of this section of the Supreme Court • ruling? • A Local schools should solve their own problems. • B The act of legally segregating the races in schools is unconstitutional. • C Schools should be funded in a way that provides equal amounts of money. • D In order to provide equality in schools, the federal government must control local • schools.

  17. LEADERS EMERGE • March on Washington- 1963; largest march in DC at that time with 250,000 marchers; purpose was to draw • attention to the Civil Rights Act that was before Congress; MLK gave his “I Have A Dream” speech • Civil Rights Act of 1964- signed by Lyndon Johnson that outlawed discrimination in public facilities; ex. no • more separate restrooms, water fountains, restaurants, etc. • Medgar Evers- state leader of the NAACP in MS; murdered in his driveway by Byron De La Beckwith in 1963; • Had organized successful boycotts in Jackson, MS

  18. CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT • The purpose of the March on Washington in August 1963 was to show support • for — • A school segregation. • B civil rights legislation. • C military involvement in Vietnam. • D ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment.

  19. THE EARLY UPHEAVAL • The Supreme Court supported Jim Crow laws through decisions like the one in the • 1896 case of — • A Miranda v. Arizona. • B Schenck v. United States. • C Plessy v. Ferguson. • D Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

  20. Planning the March on Washington

  21. LEADERS EMERGE • James Meredith- first African-American to enroll at the University of MS (Ole Miss); violent protests occurred • Ms Freedom Democratic Party- new political party formed that allowed all races to represent the state at • the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City in 1964; the National Cmte refused to recognize • the MFDP and offered them two seats at large at the convention; the MFDP refused them and left • Fannie Lou Hamer- MFDP delegate who was very critical of the Democratic party for not recognizing the MFDP and her speech was nationally televised

  22. The movement continues • Ms Summer Project or Freedom Summer- organized by the NAACP to recruit volunteers from across the country to come to MS in the summer of 1964 and help register African-Americans to vote; local police arrested 3 volunteers and their bodies were recovered months later in an earthen dam; inspired the movie “MS Burning” • Selma March- 1965; purpose was to draw attention to the lack of voting rights for African Americans; the first march ended as state troopers on horseback stopped protestors on the outskirts of Selma; troopers used tear gas on the peaceful protestors; the second march was successful b/c the president ordered the state troopers to protect the marchers

  23. KING IS KILLED • Voting Rights Act of 1965- signed by Lyndon Johnson and allowed the federal govt. to supervise voting • in the south; eliminated all barriers to voting (poll tax, literacy tests, etc.) • Malcolm X- civil rights leader who was impatient with the slow progress that had been made and believed that AF-Am should fight “eye for an eye” for their rights; did not want to integrate into the white man’s society • MLK Assassination- shot on the balcony of a hotel in Memphis, TN in 1968; was in Memphis to help a group • of garbage workers who were on strike

  24. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT • Which one of the following events is generally recognized as the start of the Civil Rights Movement? • A African American college students staged a sit-in at the Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. • B A multiracial march was organized for Washington, D.C., to demonstrate for human rights. • C Rosa Parks, an African American woman, refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. • D Fannie Lou Hamer organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party so that African Americans would be represented at the Democratic National Convention • of 1964.

  25. Who are the important people that promoted civil rights? • Plessy v. Ferguson- 1896 Supreme Court case that established “separate but equal”; it legalized segregation • Jim Crow Laws- discrimination laws in the South; ex. African Americans had curfews, couldn’t testify against a white person in court, had to ride on the back of the bus… • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.- preacher in Montgomery, AL who became the leader of the Mont. Bus Boycott; He led SCLC and believed in non-violence; influenced by Gandhi

  26. Important people, places and events during the Civil Rights Movement • Brown vs. Board of Education-1954 Supreme Court case that outlawed segregation in schools; Thurgood Marshall was the NAACP attorney who represented Linda Brown • Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott- 1955; considered the beginning of the civil rights movement; She refused to give up her seat so a white man could be seated; she was arrested and a city-wide boycott began; the Supreme Ct. stepped in and integrated Mont. buses • Little Rock Nine- 9 African-American teenagers integrated Little Rock’s Central High despite brutal protests

  27. Places and events • Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee- SNCC; college age students who organized non-violent protests • Freedom Riders- civil rights workers who hoped to integrate bus terminals; they rode buses from city to city in the South and often faced fierce crowds when they arrived at their destinations • Bull Conner and Birmingham- Racist police commissioner of B’ham, AL who ordered the police/firefighters to use dogs and fire hoses on children during a protest; it was videoed and shown world wide on news stations; B’ham was known as “Bombingham” due to the # of bombs used and violent acts that occurred

  28. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT • In 1964, volunteers went to Mississippi to work for civil rights in a movement • known as Freedom Summer. What was the MAIN goal of these volunteers? • A They wanted to integrate local high schools. • B They wanted to register African Americans to vote. • C They wanted to organize a march on Washington, D.C. • D They wanted to protest the integration of public facilities.

  29. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

  30. Freedom Riders in Montgomery

  31. Places and events • March on Washington- 1963; largest march in DC at that time with 250,000 marchers; purpose was to draw attention to the Civil Rights Act that was before Congress; MLK gave his “I Have A Dream” speech • Civil Rights Act of 1964- signed by Lyndon Johnson that outlawed discrimination in public facilities; ex. no more separate restrooms, water fountains, restaurants, etc. • Medgar Evers- state leader of the NAACP in MS; murdered in his driveway by Byron De La Beckwith in 1963; Had organized successful boycotts in Jackson, MS • James Meredith- first Af-Am to enroll at the Univ of MS (Ole Miss); violent protests occurred

  32. The ground breakers • James Meredith- first African-American to enroll at the University of MS (Ole Miss); violent protests occurred • Ms Freedom Democratic Party- new political party formed that allowed all races to represent the state at the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City in 1964; the National Committee refused to recognize the MFDP and offered them two seats at large at the convention; the MFDP refused them and left • Fannie Lou Hamer- MFDP delegate who was very critical of the Democratic party for not recognizing the MFDP and her speech was nationally televised

  33. James Meredith at Ole Miss

  34. The contributors….. • Ms Summer Project or Freedom Summer- organized by the NAACP to recruit volunteers from across the country to come to MS in the summer of 1964 and help register African-Americans to vote; local police arrested 3 volunteers and their bodies were recovered months later in an earthen dam; inspired the movie “MS Burning” • Selma March- 1965; purpose was to draw attention to the lack of voting rights for African-Americans; the first march ended as state troopers on horseback stopped protestors on the outskirts of Selma; troopers used tear gas on the peaceful protestors; the second march was successful b/c the president ordered the state troopers to protect the marchers

  35. The contributors • Voting Rights Act of 1965- signed by Lyndon Johnson and allowed the federal govt. to supervise voting in the south; eliminated all barriers to voting (poll tax, literacy tests, etc.) • Malcolm X- civil rights leader who was impatient with the slow progress that had been made and believed that AF-Am should fight “eye for an eye” for their rights; did not want to integrate into the white man’s society • MLK Assassination- shot on the balcony of a hotel in Memphis, TN in 1968; was in Memphis to help a group of garbage workers who were on strike

  36. Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC)

  37. Massive Resistance

  38. Emmett Till Lynching, 1955

  39. Greensboro, N.C.February 1, 1960

  40. Nashville Sit-Ins

  41. A Long Wait?

  42. Non-Violent Resistance

  43. Anniston AL lights the way!

  44. Alabama, 1963

  45. Welcome to Birmingham

  46. Gov. George Wallace

  47. June 12,1963:Medgar Evers