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Scientific infrastructure in and beyond Europe

Scientific infrastructure in and beyond Europe

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Scientific infrastructure in and beyond Europe

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  1. Scientific infrastructure in and beyond Europe Herwig Schopper UNESCO – IBSP, CERN, SESAME

  2. Capacity building What does it mean? • Formation of scientists is necessary(“human capital”, fellowships, exchange programs, etc) • But Infrastructure is indispensable • in EU programs practically nothing for infrastructure of basic science: • Nothing in previous Framework Programs • Some funds for hardware in mission programs in technology (IT), • use of large facilities

  3. Natural Sciences • are phenomenology based need equipment (experimental equipment, books, IT networks) • even theorists need it (libraries, computers) Without research facilities at homescientists cannot benefit from training → disappointment, frustration, emigration, brain drain

  4. Failures and unsatisfactory situationlearn from errors Including new EU Members • “Rebuilding of Research in South East Europe”by ROSTE-UNESCO, proposals, 2002, some good effectsMinisterial Conference :no great success,no sponsor meeting (other such conferences good) • Creating a regional research centre(e.g. by Octagon states, Austron), no agreement reached among scientists, failed • Participation in large European organizations(e.g. CERN, ESO,EMBL) is still unsatisfactory(but good in various countries, in some fields)

  5. The use of regional and international facilities • works more or less in Western Europebut improvement possible, • strengthen it in East and South East Europe, • but should also be extended beyond Europe to neighboring regions (many scientific and political reasons) • e.g. Mediterranean region, Middle East

  6. What else should be done? The ERC should make it possible to: • provide minimal equipment for universitiese.g. computers, links to outside, data analysis, small accelerators, spectrometers, etc • Help to create some centers of excellence(regional or international)serve as reference for standards of quality • A European Technical University?? In a new member state ? (France, Poland) Interlinked with existing institutions (e.g. CERN, EMBL, ESO, ESA)

  7. 3 Examplesand what to learn from them for international use of infrastucture • UNESCO International Basic Science Program IBSP • CERN: from European institute to global international cooperation with unique facilities • SESAME: medium size facility for Middle East with strong links to Europe

  8. UNESCO International Basic Sciences Programme IBSP UNESCO Flagship Activity First round just started,General Conferenceapproved its future strategy (October 2005) First UN Program dedicated to Basic Sciences and Science Education Not for fellowships, but project orientedprovides exactly what is needed, but at low financial level

  9. 310 Applications for Projects, 39 recommended for 2005/2007 Great interest ! Almost all projects concern experimental activities, no fellowships

  10. Future strategy(major issues) • concentrate region-specific actions involving networks of national, regional and international centresof excellence; • actions based on projects fostering regional and/or international cooperation in development-oriented areas; • transfer of excellence and the sharing of scientific information and facilities through cooperation between national and regional institutions in the North and South; • innovations and improvement of the quality ofscience education; • stimulate new partnership with governmental institutions and major non-governmental scientific organizations in the basic sciences. • Co-funding is essential element

  11. ERC could provide similarhelp for Europe at more adequate financial level • IBSP overlaps in its objectives with ERC • A cooperation would be opportune and beneficial

  12. European Science not so bad!! • Quite competitive in some fields • CERN, ESO, EMBL • Learn also from positive examples

  13. Working Style of CERN Tasks shared between CERN – Users • CERN builds and operates (unique) facilities, coordinates exploitation (Technical Competence)“Service Station” • Users come from Universities, national Labs, etc. (Scientific Competence, Rejuvenation)

  14. CERN international organisation • Foundation based on 2 initiatives :1.Physicists:join European forces to be competitive with US, in nuclear and elementary particle physics • 2. Political initiative: European Movementbring Europeans togetherafter war • The two initiatives were combined at 5. General Conference of UNESCO in Florence, June 1950Constitution approved in 2004, 1. European Organisation • Two objectives: • Promote science and technology and • Contribute to better understanding between nations

  15. Memberstates of CERN From 12 to 20 Member States + Associates USA, Russia, Japan, India, Israel,........and special agreements with many other countries

  16. Users in whole World

  17. CERN crossing the Swiss-French Border LEP/LHC SPS PS/ISR Tunnel 27 km circumference, built for LEP (e+e-), used now for LHC (p-p) ***

  18. CERN and Europe • CERN is older then EU and EU application oriented (EURATOM) from its beginning • Hence little contact in the past(recently for GRID, after the invention of WEB by CERN)CERN has academic training program, but cannot award academic titles(strong cooperation with universities, how to improve?) • ERC should help users to participate in CERN program providing infrastructure at home institutions (detector building) • Make use of its infrastructure and competence for other institutions (Technical University?), create network among major European technical institutions

  19. SESAMEinternational organisation A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East • International organisation created by UNESCO according to CERN model • 8 Members of SESAME Council; Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey, Iran?, Iraq??, Cyprus ? • Observer Countries: France*, Germany, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Russia, UK, USA, United Arab Emirates • Jordan is host country; selected from 7 competing countries, Lab must be open to qualified scientists from everywhere • Jordan is providing the site and funds for the building now in construction • Some capital funds sought from other sources (EU, Japan, US…) • First operation expected in 2009 • www.sesame.org.jo

  20. H.M.King Abdullah II and UNESCO DG Matsuura unveiling marble plate, Groundbreaking January 2003

  21. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ APRIL 2005 The site of SESAME in Allaan, Jordan; 30 km NW of Amman Elevation ≈ 1000 m Summer 2005 Building to be finished fall 2006

  22. SESAME and Europe Whenunanimouslyapproved by UNESCO General Assembly(November 2001, more than 150 Countries) and Executive Board(>50 countries Mai 2002) ”...model project for other regions....Quintessential UNESCO project combining capacity building with vital peace-building through science.” Seed money for similar projects suggested Was possible only by help from Europe: donation of equipment(BESSY I Germany, beam elements from LURE and Daresbury) European SR labs accepted trainees from Middle East Request for funds for upgrading from EU (MEDA programme) pending My experience: Large funds for development available (Roads, Water), Very low priority for research!! 1% of funds for development would help basic research!

  23. The tower of Babelby Breughel Architects (scientists) on their knees asking for funds

  24. Some Conclusions • Provide funds for infrastructure, not only for training • Keep bureaucracy to minimumBest scientists find funds anyway • Transparence for decision taking • Promote international cooperation in and outside Europe Do not make simply gifts, require: • engagement of local scientists with competence (to avoid “white elephants”!) • participation from local authorities (co-funding)

  25. Thank you for your attention

  26. Paul Johannes II at CERN

  27. Energy concentration like about 10-10 s after Big Bang Known particles Unknown particles Gammaphotons Mini Big Bang Investigate state of matter at high energy densities (temperature)