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Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Forces Shaping the Earth Section 2: Landforms and Water Resources Section 3: Climate Regions Section 4: Human-Environment Interaction Summary. Chapter Menu.

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1:Forces Shaping the Earth Section 2:Landforms and Water Resources Section 3:Climate Regions Section 4:Human-Environment Interaction Summary Chapter Menu

  3. PlaceThink about the characteristics of the area where you live. How does the land look? Is there a large body of water nearby? What is the climate like? Each place on the Earth is unique, with its own special characteristics. What kinds of geographic characteristics define the region where you live? Chapter Intro 1

  4. Section 1: Forces Shaping the Earth Physical processes shape the Earth’s surface.Forces from within and the actions of wind, water, and ice have shaped Earth’s surface. Chapter Intro 2

  5. Section 2: Landforms and Water Resources Geographic factors influence where people settle.Physical features determine where people live. Chapter Intro 2

  6. Section 3: Climate Regions Geographers organize the Earth into regions that share common characteristics. Geographers use climate to define world regions. Chapter Intro 2

  7. Section 4: Human-Environment Interaction All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival. Human actions greatly affect the natural world. Chapter Intro 2

  8. Chapter Intro-End

  9. Physical processes shape the Earth’s surface. Section 1-Main Idea

  10. Content Vocabulary • core • mantle • magma • crust • continent • plate tectonics • earthquake • fault • weathering • erosion Section 1-Key Terms

  11. Academic Vocabulary • release • constant • accumulate Section 1-Key Terms

  12. A B Have you ever been in an earthquake? A. Yes B. No Section 1-Polling Question

  13. Eyewitnesses to the 2004 tsunami in Indonesia saw animals running from the coastline soon before the waves hit. Later, rescue workers and investigators were surprised to find very few dead animals among the devastation. Scientists speculate that animals can hear, smell, and feel subtle environmental changes that serve as warnings to flee. Section 1

  14. Inside the Earth The Earth is made up of several layers that have different characteristics. Section 1

  15. Inside the Earth (cont.) • The Earth has layers like a melon or a baseball. The center is a dense solid core of hot iron mixed with other metals and rock. • The next layer, the outer core, is so hot that the metal has melted into a liquid. • Around the core is a layer of hot dense rock about 1,770 miles thick called the mantle. Earth’s Layers Section 1

  16. Inside the Earth (cont.) • The area nearest the core is solid, but the rock in the outer mantle can be moved, shaped, and melted. • Melted rock from the mantle is called magma. • It flows to the surface during a volcanic eruption. Once it reaches the surface, magma is called lava. Section 1

  17. Inside the Earth (cont.) • A rocky shell forms the Earth’s surface and is called the crust. • This uppermost layer includes the ocean floors and seven land areas known as continents. Section 1

  18. A B C D Which of the following is NOT the name of a continent? A.Europe B.Africa C.Central America D.Australia Section 1

  19. Shaping the Earth’s Surface Forces acting both inside and outside the Earth work to change the appearance of the Earth’s surface. Section 1

  20. Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.) • Because the Earth’s crust is in slow, constant motion, it changes over time. • Old mountains are worn down, while new mountains grow taller. The continents move as well. • By studying plate tectonics, you can understand how the continents were formed and why they move. Tectonic Plate Boundaries Section 1

  21. Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.) • Each continent sits on one or more large land bases called plates. • As these plates move, the continents also move. • This movement is called continental drift. The drift can be as little 1 (2.54 cm) inch to as much as 7 inches (17.78 cm) per year. Section 1

  22. Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.) • Sometimes the plates pull away from each other, and sometimes they collide. • When plates collide, the land where the plates meet rises and forms mountains. • Collisions of continental and oceanic plates cause magma to erupt. When the magma hardens, the result is volcanic mountains. Section 1

  23. Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.) • Earthquakes are sudden and violent movements of the Earth’s crust. • They are common in areas such as the Pacific Ocean. Here the collision of ocean and continental plates makes the Earth’s crust unstable. Section 1

  24. Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.) • When plates move alongside each other, the movement makes cracks in the Earth’s crust called faults. • Movements along faults may happen in sudden bursts that cause earthquakes. • Another natural force that changes landforms is called weathering. Section 1

  25. Shaping the Earth’s Surface (cont.) • During this process, water and ice, chemicals, and even plants break rocks apart into smaller pieces. • Forces such as water, wind, and ice can move weathered rock in a process called erosion. Section 1

  26. A B C D What is the name of the region around the edge of the Pacific Ocean where many volcanoes and earthquakes occur? A.Ring of Fire B.Pangaea C.San Andreas Fault D.Plate tectonics Section 1

  27. Section 1-End

  28. Geographic factors influence where people settle. Section 2-Main Idea

  29. Content Vocabulary • continental shelf • trench • groundwater • aquifer • water cycle • evaporation • condensation • precipitation • collection Section 2-Key Terms

  30. Academic Vocabulary • occur • define • availability Section 2-Key Terms

  31. A B Do you think there are mountains underwater? A. Yes B. No Section 2-Polling Question

  32. Between June and August 1993, an extraordinary amount of precipitation fell in the Midwestern United States. Meteorologists recorded a 200 to 350 percent increase from the normal rainfall. Floodwaters from the overflowing Mississippi and Missouri Rivers covered 400,000 square miles (1.04 million sq. km) and 15 million acres of farmland in nine states. Section 2

  33. Types of Landforms Earth has a variety of landforms, and many of the landforms can be found both on the continents and the ocean floors. Section 2

  34. Types of Landforms(cont.) • Mountains, the highest landforms, range in height from a few thousand feet to nearly 30,000 feet (9144 m). • Hills are lower and more rounded than mountains. • Other landforms are valleys and flatlands. • A valley is lower than the land on either side and lies between mountains and hills. Section 2

  35. Types of Landforms(cont.) • Flatlands occur in one of two forms. • Plains are flat lowlands, typically found along coasts and lowland river valleys. • Plateaus are flatlands at higher elevations. Section 2

  36. Types of Landforms(cont.) • Geographers define some landforms by their relationship to bodies of water. Examples are an isthmus, a peninsula, and an island. • Off each coast of a continent lies a plateau called a continental shelfthat stretches for several miles underwater. • Mountains also are found underwater. Section 2

  37. Types of Landforms (cont.) • Tectonic activity makes deep cuts in the ocean floor called trenches. • A well-known trench is the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean. • Humans settle on all types of landforms. • Factors that help people decide where to live include climate and the availability of freshwater and food sources. Section 2

  38. A B C D Where is the Mariana Trench located? A.Pacific Ocean B.Atlantic Ocean C.Indian Ocean D.Arctic Ocean Section 2

  39. The Water Planet Water covers much of the planet, but only some of this water is usable. Section 2

  40. The Water Planet (cont.) • About 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. • Almost 97 percent of the Earth’s water is salt water. • Narrow bodies of water called straits or channels link seas, bays, and gulfs to the oceans. Section 2

  41. The Water Planet (cont.) • Only 3 percent of the water on Earth is freshwater. • Much of this freshwater is frozen in ice that covers polar regions and parts of mountains. Section 2

  42. The Water Planet (cont.) • Some freshwater is groundwater, which filters through the soil into the ground. • Groundwater often gathers in aquifers, or underground layers of rock through which water flows. • Lakes are large inland bodies of water. Section 2

  43. The Water Planet (cont.) • Rivers are long, flowing bodies of water. • Rivers begin at a source and end at a mouth. • The mouth is the place where a river empties into another body of water, such as an ocean or a lake. Section 2

  44. The Water Planet (cont.) • The largest rivers often have many tributaries, which are separate streams or rivers that feed into them. • Many rivers form deltas at their mouths by depositing soil. • Here a river breaks into many different streams flowing toward the sea. Section 2

  45. The Water Planet (cont.) • The water on Earth moves constantly in a process called the water cycle. • The sun drives the water cycle because it evaporates water, turning water from a liquid to a gas called water vapor. • Condensation occurs when cool temperatures change water vapor back to a liquid. The Water Cycle Section 2

  46. The Water Planet (cont.) • When the liquid form falls to Earth, it is called precipitation. • The cycle is completed when collectiontakes place in rivers, lakes, and oceans. Section 2

  47. A B C D What percentage of the Earth’s water is salt water? A.10 B.50 C.75 D.97 Section 2

  48. Section 2-End

  49. Geographers organize the Earth into regions that share common characteristics. Section 3-Main Idea

  50. Content Vocabulary • weather • climate • prevailing wind • current • El Niño • La Niña • local wind • rain shadow • climate zone • biome • urban climate Section 3-Key Terms

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