What is an Industrial Revolution? • A country shifts from an agriculture based economy to a factory based economy. • Switch from handmade goods made in the home/small shops to machine made goods made in factoriesmass production • People migrate from farms to cities in search of jobs
What is Needed to Industrialize? • Factors of production: the resources needed and used to produce goods. • 1. Land • 2. Labor • 3. Capital • 4. Entrepreneurship
England: Birthplace of the I.R. • Began in England c. 1780 • By 1800s England in a position of dominance over other countries • New technology • Making more and better products • Making money • By 1830, the I.R. had spread to the rest of western Europe
Why England? 1. Good climate 2. Capital 3. Lots of natural resources at home & in their colonies • Rivers, coal, iron, cotton 4. Markets to sell their products in • Colonies & at home 6. Separated from wars in Europe 7. Free-market economy 8. Gov. helps build railroads and canals 9. Monopoly on new technology 10. Large labor force • Improved agriculture population increased • Farmers willing to relocate to cities due to enclosure movement
Enclosure Movement • Parliament passed laws that allowed aristocrats to fence off land • Landowners closed off public lands used by poor/small farmers. • landowners now able to better organize their property and keep track of animals • Led to “closed” mega farms that produced more food by less people • Poor/small farmers now have no land to work they migrated to the cities looking for work as unskilled labor • Urbanization: rapid and massive growth of cities due to migration of people there. URBAN RURAL
Review Quiz 1. An Industrial Revolution is a switch from handmade goods in the home/small shops to machine made goods in factories. 2. England experienced the first Industrial Revolution 3. The Enclosure Movement led the people to leave their farms and head to the cities. 4. The Industrial Revolution put England in a position of dominance over other countries. 5. Land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship are the factors of production needed for a country to industrialize
English Textile Industry • England first used the Cottage Industry in order to produce textiles • Spinners and weavers used hand power to make cotton goods at home • Later textile factories were created • These were the first factoriesever created • All machines needed to make a product were in one building. • Built next to riversand streams in order to use water power. Also relied on wind power. • Eventually, coal and steam power allowed them to be built anywhere
Factory Conditions • Other industries begin to use factories too. • Factory owners want constant production: • 1. workers must work shits with few to no breaks • 2. Strict discipline • 3. Use of child labor • 4. Unsafe or unsanitary conditions • 5. exploitation of workers • People will demand change • It will come slowly through gov. regulations and labor unions.
I.R. Creation of New Middle Class • Before the I.R., the middle class was made up of merchants, artisans, and professionals. • Not nobles but not poor • I.R. a new middle class made up of factory owners, business-men, store owners, and entrepreneurs • New middle class soon was divided into 2: • 1. Upper-middle class: bought machines and figured out where the markets were • 2. Lower Middle class: industrial workers
Negative Effects of England’s I.R. 1. Bad living conditions • No sanitary ( trash & waste management) regulations by the gov. • Trash & filth piled up in the streets and was thrown in the rivers. • Cities grew so fast the gov. was not ready or able to meet basic needs for so many people • Clean water, sewer system, adequate police force • No safety codes for buildings • Dangerous building structure, filthy, overcrowded • Life expectancy in the city was 17 compared to 38 in the rural areas.
Negative Effects of England’s I.R. 2. Environment polluted and over used 3. Exploitation of workers
Negative Effects of England’s I.R 4. Increase in industry need for more raw materials and markets wars of the 20thcentury 5. I.R. new weapons and machines that the West uses to achieve dominance over much of the world.