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  1. Celebrating Humanity The English Renaissance 1485-1625 Senior English

  2. Renaissance began in Italy between 1350 and 1550 • Commerce and wealthy middle class supported learning and arts • Came to England in 1485-1625 • Scholars revived learning Historical Background

  3. Thirst for knowledge prompted exploration by sea • Columbus arrived in Western Hemisphere in 1492 • England entered exploration in 1497 • John Cabot sailed to Newfoundland The Age of Exploration

  4. Growing nationalism led to questioning authority of the Roman Catholic Church • Began to question validity of interpretations of the Bible • Martin Luther nailed list of dissenting beliefs to the door • Caused church split and creating of Protestant Religion

  5. Began with the end of the War of Roses • Monarchs ensured stability • Increased own strength • Undercut strength of nobles • Henry VII – first Tudor • Inherited nation after civil war • Reestablished treasury and law and order The Tudors

  6. Henry VIII • Wrote a book against Martin Luther • Earned title “Defender of the Faith” • First marriage to Catherine of Aragon did not produce son • Tried to divorce her • Pope wouldn’t let it • Seized all church property, dissolved monasteries, had Thomas More killed • Remarried 7 more times Tudors

  7. Henry VIII’s son Edward VI became king at age 9 and died at 15 • Changed language of religious practice to English from Latin • Began to use Book of Common Prayer • England becoming Protestant Religious Turmoil

  8. Half sister Mary took over • Restored Roman practices to Church of England • Made Pope authority over church • Executed over 300 protestants • Earned nickname “Bloody Mary” • Strengthened anti-Catholic views Religious Turmoil

  9. Most educated monarch • Reestablished monarch’s control over Church of England • Restored Book of Common Prayer • Instituted policy of religious compromise • Catholics did not recognize Elizabeth as heir, wanted Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland • Elizabeth had her imprisoned for 18 years, then beheaded Elizabeth I

  10. Stuarts came to power when Elizabeth I announced King James VI of Scotland as successor • Becomes James I of England • James I was protestant • Struggled with parliament for power • Persecuted Puritans Stuarts and Puritans

  11. Elizabethan Age produced explosion of cultural energy • Narratives, poetry, dramas, comedies reflected ideas of the times • Provided a forum for subtle and satirical criticism of monarchy and Church Literature of the Period

  12. Sonnet cycle – series of sonnets that loosely fit together to form a story • Sonnet • 14 line poem • Iambic pentameter • Rhyme scheme varies • Sir Phillip Sidney – Astrophel and Stella • Edmund Spenser – Amoretti Elizabethan PoetryThe Sonnet: Sidney, Spenser, Shakespeare

  13. Changed sonnet rhyme scheme and form • Petrarchan sonnet • Abbaabba / cdecde or cdcdcd • Shakespearean • Abab cdcd efef gg Shakespearean Sonnet

  14. Pastoral verse – idealizes the rustic simplicity of rural life • “The Passionate Shepherd to his Love” • Christopher Marlow • “The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd” • Sir Walter Raleigh Pastoral Poetry: Marlowe and Raleigh

  15. Began turning from religious subjects • Developed more complex and sophisticated plays • Used models from Greece and Rome Elizabethan Drama

  16. First major Elizabethan dramatist • Died at age 30 • Could have rivaled Shakespeare • Tamburlaine the Great • The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus Christopher Marlow as a Playwright

  17. Began in the theater as an actor • Wrote 37 plays • Work displayed an understanding of human nature William Shakespeare as Playwright

  18. Prose took a backseat to poetry during the renaissance • Scholars still preferred to write in Latin • Used long words and ornate sentences • Difficult to read today Elizabethan and Jacobean Prose

  19. Defence of Poesie earliest works of literary criticism • Nashe’s The Unfortunate Traveler forerunner to the novel • History of the World – written by Raleigh while imprisoned in the Tower of London The Prose of Sidney, Nashe, and Raleigh

  20. Leading prose writer of the English Renaissance • Government official under James I • Novum Organum • Natural science and philosophy Sir Francis Bacon

  21. Most monumental prose achievement • 54 scholars worked for 7 years • First translation from Latin to English King James Bible

  22. Transition from medieval past to modern world • Literature provides standard against which all English literature is judged Achievements of the Renaissance

  23. Read page 232