(It really does)Matter and its Phases Dr. Anti-Matter Hazlett MHS
Inertia • To understand matter – you need to understand the concept of inertia • This is the force(s) that keep something in rest • The idea is based on energy • This energy is divided into Kinetic and Potential • Kinetic Energy (KE) – the energy of motion (KE = 1/2mv2) • Potential Energy (PE) – the energy of/at rest (PE = mgh)
The car at the top of the hill has the potential to use energy if it move/falls • Its KE at rest = 0 • When it is descending – its KE increases, but its PE decreases • When it hits the bottom, its PE goes up again and its KE once again equals zero
E = m c2 • This means that energy and matter are interchangeable if it is multiplied by the square of the speed of light (c) • C = 186 400 miles per second • C = 299 792 458 meters per second (rounded to 3.0 x 108 m/s)
Mass vs. Matter • Matter is something that occupies spacetime and has length, width and height (and time) • Mass, on the other hand, is HOW MUCH MATTER an object has at any one time • It is a measure of inertia • Measured in grams, milligrams or kilograms, etc. • The mass of an object does not change • Mass and Matter follow the Conservation Laws – they can’t be created nor destroyed – only transformed
Mass remains the same regardless of the phase of the matter • However – the volume may change due to the substances density in that state of matter 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg Small Volume Medium Volume High Volume High Density Medium Density Low Density
NOTE: Mass is NOT the same as Weight • Weight is mass with the effect of gravity applied to it! • Wt. = mass x gravity (9.81 m/s2 on Earth) • Mass does not change – gravity does change from place to place – so weight will change
Volume and Density • Volume is how much space a certain mass occupies – typically calculated by multiplying width x height x length of the container • Measured in cm3, L, ml, etc. • Density is how much mass is compacted into a space • In other words, how closely packed are the atoms of the matter • D = mass / volume • Answers will be in g/ml, g/L, etc.
Types/Phases of Matter • The type or phase of matter is dependent upon the KE in the particle’s of that matter • All particles (atoms or molecules) have KE • They move by rotating, vibrating or translating (going in a straight line) • So, the amount of KE determines the phase of the matter • Particle KE is affected by things like temperature and pressure
1. PLASMA • On the scale of KE, this phase/type of matter has the highest amount • In fact, it has so much, the electrons get ripped off the atom’s nucleus – leaving plasma • Example is lightning or the surface of the sun
2. Gas • Gases are next on the KE scale • A gas is defined as a type of matter that fills its container, so its volume equals whatever it’s in • Gases expand to fill their container in a process called diffusion • Since the atoms of a gas have a lot of space between them, gases can be condensed or compressed • In fact – applying pressure and lowering the temp of a gas will transform it into a liquid
Gas particles – due to the space and KE – collide a lot • They collide with each other and the sides of the container they are in • The collisions with the container we measure and call pressure • The rate of collision is the gas pressure in the container! (Of course – there’s different ways to measure this and it requires your very favorite topic – CONVERSIONS!)
3. Liquid • Like gases, they fill the container they are in – so their volume is measured by their container • A liquid’s mass and volume can be measured separately • However – there is less space between the particles and they are less compressible
Key Terms with Liquids • Viscosity – this is the rate or ability of a liquid to flow • Surface Tension – the top of a liquid has a “skin” on top due to the attraction of the top layer of particles by the ones below it • This is what allows a drop to form a circular shape
Vapor Pressure - due to evaporation, there will be some particles of a liquid in the atmosphere above it, and this changes the pressure above that liquid • Capillary Action – this is the ability of a liquid to flow uphill! • It is achieved through electromagnetic forces!
4. Solids • Much lower particle KE and this is limited mainly to vibrations and rotations • Solids have a set volume, mass, shape and density • Just like the other types of matter – solids are affected by temperature and pressure • Two major solid structures . . . . .
Amorphous Solid Structure – the particles in the solid are randomly set up or aligned • Ice is an example of this • You have to increase the pressure on ice to about 1 million atmospheres to get it into a crystalline structure! • Crystalline Solid Structure – this is a 3 dimensional, organized pattern of the solid’s particles • There are 7 major crystal structures
This form of matter can only be achieved at absolute zero! • That’s -465oF, -273oC, or OoK!!!!! • This means that there is NO KE in or between the matter’s particles • Because of this – light sent through BEC will slow down to 7, that’s right, 7 mph!!!!! • Temp lowered by using lasers
Typically, the energy from the photon is absorbed and then released by the atom’s electrons • But at Absolute Zero – there is no KE and the electrons are not moving – so they can’t absorb or release any energy!
6. Dark Matter • Believe it or not, 80% of the matter in the universe is made up of something called dark matter • It’s called this because we are in the “dark” about what it really is • Fritz Zwicky (1934) proposed the existence of dark matter to explain the amount of gravity found in the galaxy • Since then, it has been reinforced by other scientific experiments and mathematics
Dark matter falls into the category of non-baryonic matter • It contains particles called MACHOs, WIMPs (confirmed as existing in 2013!) and others
Phase Diagrams and Concepts • Phase diagram – a graph to show the phases of a substance and at what temperature and pressure it goes into each phase
Phase Changes: From To Term Solid Liquid Liquification / Melting Liquid Solid Solidification / Freezing Liquid Gas/Vapor Evaporation Gas/Vapor Liquid Condensation Solid Gas Sublimation Gas Solid Deposition / Crystallization
Temperature Scales (3 Most Common) Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin H2O Boil Point 212o 100o 373o Freeze Point 32 0 273 Absolute Zero -465 -273 0
Converting Temperatures • oC = (oF - 32) x .566 • oF = (oC + 32) x 1.8 • oK = oC + 273
Classifying Matter Baryonic Matter (Observable Matter – 20% Universe) Substances Mixtures Element Compound Heterogeneous Homogeneous -On Periodic -2+ elements -Separable by -Includes: Table -Molecules filtering, distilling Colloids and -Pure Form -Proportional or crystalizing Solutions -Single group make up -Suspension -Non-separable of Atoms -Emulsion
Matter Concepts: • Element • The pure form of a substance • Found on the periodic table • Can be in any of the phases mentioned! • Compound • A combination of 2 or more elements • Combination is in a ratio or proportional • Basically – a molecule
Mixtures • 2 or more elements or compounds mixed together • Heterogeneous – a mixture that can be easily separated through filtration, distillation or crystallization • Suspension – a temporary mixture where the particles separate out on their own (like dirt in water) • Emulsion – a suspension of two liquids – will separate (mayonnaise)
Homogeneous Mixture – non-separable, remain mixed completely and equally • Includes Colloids – a solution with large particles dissolved in it, like milk or paint • Includes Solutions – a solution is made up of the solute (what is dissolved) and the solvent (what the solute is dissolved in) • Example: Salt Water Salt is the Solute and water is the solvent
Chemical and Physical Properties PhysicalChemical Does not change with phase May change in a reaction Density, Mass Atomic Structure Boiling/Freezing Points Flammability Color Oxidation Hardness Reactivity Odor, Taste Bonding Texture Radioactivity Mallibility Ductile
Pressure – and CONVERSIONS! • Pressure • At sea level: • 1 atmosphere (atm) = 14.7 psi = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101 325 Pascals (Pa) = 101 325 N/m2 = 10.1325 kPa = 10.1325 N/cm2 = 1.01325 bars *For every 33 feet underwater – add another atm of pressure *STP is standard temperature and pressure and equals 1 atm and 0o C
The End. . . . . . . Next up Atoms in Detail and the Periodic Table!